This article will demonstrate that the AC current density decreases exponentially into a conductor. It will also explain why we can assume that the total current has a uniform distribution from the surface down to one skin depth of the conductor.
August 06, 2023 by Dr. Steve Arar
Learn how whitening filters solve problems in low-power radios when transmitting long identical bit sequences. Explore their significance in protocols like BLE and ZigBee.
August 02, 2023 by Nthatisi Hlapisi
Let’s modernize a circuit from a Science Fair 150-in-1 Electronic Project kit using a solderless breadboard, new electronic components, online EDA tools, and an M5Stack Core microcontroller.
July 09, 2023 by Don Wilcher
Understanding PCB material parameters such as relative permittivity and loss tangent allows us to discuss some important considerations for choosing the right material when designing a high-speed/high-frequency application.
July 05, 2023 by Dr. Steve Arar
Ultra-thin, flexible, and low-power displays support wireless, IoT, and energy-harvesting applications that continue to bring intelligence to more products. This article examines two of the most popular low-power reflective display technologies—electrochromic and electrophoretic.
July 02, 2023 by Dale Wilson
Understanding two key Boolean canonical forms, the sum-of-products and the product-of-sums, is important in digital system design and optimization. We will introduce how to generate these forms and provide guidelines on when it is typically best to use each form.
June 30, 2023 by William Bahn
The Y-factor method is a widely used technique for measuring the gain and noise figure (NF) of RF components. This article will help you understand the differences between the insertion gain and the available gain, while avoiding potentially significant errors when measuring the noise figure.
June 28, 2023 by Dr. Steve Arar
This project demonstrates the design and operation of a root-mean-squared (RMS) detector for inclusion in a wideband voltmeter. The RMS detector is useful for measuring certain signal types, including noise, since it provides an indication of the energy in a signal.
June 25, 2023 by John Woodgate