A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. There are two classifications of capacitors, polarized and non-polarized.
Polarized capacitors can only be used in one polarity but not the other, this is due to its construction. These types of capacitors are called electrolytics. Non-polarized capacitor on the other hand can be used in any way because it has no implicit polarity. These type of capacitors are sometimes known as bipolar capacitors. Lastly is a variable capacitor, is a capacitor whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed.
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by Jake Hertz