In the last section, we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its integer multiples (collectively called *triplen* harmonics) generated by 120° phase-shifted fundamental waveforms are actually in phase with each other. In a 60 Hz three-phase power system, where phases **A**, **B**, and **C** are 120° apart, the third-harmonic multiples of those frequencies (180 Hz) fall perfectly into phase with each other. This can be thought of in graphical terms, (figure below) and/or in mathematical terms:

*Extended Mathematical Table with Odd-Numbered Harmonics*

If we extend the mathematical table to include higher odd-numbered harmonics, we will notice an interesting pattern develop with regard to the rotation or sequence of the harmonic frequencies:

Harmonics such as the 7th, which “rotate” with the same sequence as the fundamental, are called *positive sequence*.

Harmonics such as the 5th, which “rotate” in the opposite sequence as the fundamental, are called *negative sequence*.

Triplen harmonics (3rd and 9th shown in this table) which don’t “rotate” at all because they’re in phase with each other, are called *zero sequence*.

This pattern of positive-zero-negative-positive continues indefinitely for all odd-numbered harmonics, lending itself to expression in a table like this:

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