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pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment…

Switches, Process Actuated

Textbook

It is very important to keep in mind that the “normal”…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Voltage Divider Calculator

Tools

The voltage divider is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

Physiological Effects of Electricity

Textbook

Most of us have experienced some form of electric “shock,”…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

Learning Objectives Rheostat use Wiring a potentiometer as a rheostat…

Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

Voltmeter Impact on Measured Circuit

Textbook

Every meter impacts the circuit it is measuring to some extent, just…

Differential Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Two NPN…

Look-up Tables

Textbook

Having learned about digital memory devices in the last chapter, we…

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Textbook

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was named because its operation…

Static Electricity Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One N-channel junction field-effect transistor,…

Pulsed-light Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

Strain Gauges

Textbook

If a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier…

Sensitive Voltage Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio…

Performance-Based Assessments for Analog Integrated Circuit Competencies

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

Half-wave Rectifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply (6-volt output) 6-volt…

Example Circuits and Netlists

Textbook

The following circuits are pre-tested netlists for SPICE 2g6, complete…

Simple Series Resonance

Textbook

A similar effect happens in series inductive/capacitive circuits. When…

DC Circuit Equations and Laws

Textbook

Power Equation of Ohm’s Law and Joule’s Law    …

What is Network Analysis?

Textbook

Generally speaking, network analysis is any structured technique used…

BJT Quirks

Textbook

An ideal transistor would show 0% distortion in amplifying a signal.…

Shock Current Path

Textbook

As we’ve already learned, electricity requires a complete path…

Contributors (15)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Time-Delay Electromechanical Relays

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

What does the normal status of an electrical switch refer to?…

Factoring Equivalencies

Textbook

Factoring Identities :   a2 - b2 = (a + b) (a - b) a2 + 2ab + b2…

Multiplexers and Demultiplexers

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Creating Custom Calibration Resistances

Textbook

Often in the course of designing and building electrical meter…

Microstrip Max Current Calculator

Tools

A calculator for solving the maximum current a microstrip can handle.

Power Added Efficiency Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to compute the power-added efficiency (PAE) of an amplifier

Insulator Breakdown Voltage

Textbook

The atoms in insulating materials have very tightly-bound electrons,…

Digital Logic Functions

Textbook

We can construct a simple logic functions for our hypothetical lamp…

The Pentode

Textbook

Another strategy for addressing the problem of secondary electrons…

Simple AC Circuit Calculations

Textbook

Over the course of the next few chapters, you will learn that AC…

Resonance

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

The Q factor of a series inductive circuit is given by the following…