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3D Time of Flight: Understanding the system trade-offs

In partnership with Texas Instruments

Learn how design parameters impact system performance.

3D time-of-flight sensor theory of operation

In partnership with Texas Instruments

Explore the theory of operation behind 3D time of flight sensors.

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Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Textbook

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was named because its operation…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

Strain Gauges

Textbook

If a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

Sensitive Voltage Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio headphones…

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

Pulsed-light Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN transistor—models…

Voltage Divider Calculator

Tools

The voltage divider is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

Static Electricity Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One N-channel junction field-effect transistor,…

pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

Physiological Effects of Electricity

Textbook

Most of us have experienced some form of electric “shock,”…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Differential Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Two NPN…

Single-ended and Differential Amplifiers

Textbook

For ease of drawing complex circuit diagrams, electronic amplifiers…

4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment…

Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

Learning Objectives Rheostat use Wiring a potentiometer as a rheostat…

Look-up Tables

Textbook

Having learned about digital memory devices in the last chapter, we…

Antiderivatives of Power Functions of e

Textbook

Note: this is a very unique and useful property of e. As in the case…

Critical Temperatures for Superconductors

Textbook

Critical temperatures given in Kelvins Material Element/Alloy…

AC Commutator Motors

Textbook

Charles Proteus Steinmetz’s first job after arriving in America…

Rheostat Range Limiting

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Several 10 kΩ resistors One 10 kΩ…

Transistors, Hybrid

Textbook

DIP Gate Packaging

Textbook

Digital logic gate circuits are manufactured as integrated circuits:…

Field-effect-controlled Thyristors

Textbook

Two relatively recent technologies designed to reduce the…

Tubes versus Semiconductors

Textbook

Devoting a whole chapter in a modern electronics text to the design…

Conductance

Textbook

When students first see the parallel resistance equation, the natural…

Conductor Ampacity

Textbook

The smaller the cross-sectional area of any given wire, the greater…

Contributors (11)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Wire Types and Sizes

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

Most electrical wire is covered in a rubber or plastic coating called…

CMOS 555 Long Duration Flyback LED Flasher

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two AAA Batteries Battery Clip (Radio Shack…

Basic Voltmeter Use

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

What will this voltmeter register when connected to a battery as shown…

Active Filters

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Depletion-type IGFETs

Textbook

Insulated gate field-effect transistors are unipolar devices just like…

SPICE Models

Textbook

The SPICE circuit simulation program provides for modeling diodes in…

Phase-Locked Loops

Worksheets - Optical Sensors

This is a schematic for a simple VCO: The oscillator is of the RC…

Enhancement-type IGFETs

Textbook

Finite-state Machine

Textbook

Feedback is a fascinating engineering principle. It can turn a rather…