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Analog and Digital Signals

Textbook

Instrumentation is a field of study and work centering on measurement…

Permissive and Interlock Circuits

Textbook

A practical application of switch and relay logic is in control…

Electrical Isolation

Textbook

SPICE analysis of Electrical Isolation Aside from the ability to…

Antiderivatives of Power Functions of e

Textbook

  Note: this is a very unique and useful property of e. As in…

Connectors

Textbook

An electrical connector, is an electro-mechanical device used to join…

Contactors

Textbook

All About Contactors When a relay is used to switch a large amount of…

Wire Self Inductance Calculator

Tools

This calculator will help compute the inductance of a length of wire.

Non-right Triangle Trigonometry

Textbook

The Law of Sines (for any triangle) The Law of Cosines (for any…

Common Antiderivatives

Textbook

 

The Antiderivative (Indefinite Integral)

Textbook

  Notice something important here: taking the derivative of f(x)…

Electrical Connections

Worksheets - Connectors

What, exactly, is necessary to establish electrical continuity between…

AC Lab - Automotive Alternator as AC Generator

Textbook

In this hands-on AC electronics experiment, you will use an automotive alternator to generate three-phase AC voltage and learn how alternators can function as both generators and motors.

Electromagnetic Induction

Textbook

While Oersted’s surprising discovery of electromagnetism paved…

Networks and Busses

Textbook

The wires between the tank and the monitoring location is  called…

DIY EE Lab - Setting Up a Home Electronics Lab

Textbook

To build the DIY electronics projects described in this textbook, you will need a small work area, a few tools, and some basic electronics supplies. This page describes the setup of a low-cost home electronics laboratory.

Right Triangle Trigonometry

Textbook

  A right triangle is defined as having one angle precisely…

Rules for Derivatives

Textbook

Constant rule Rule of sums Rule of differences Product rule Quotient…

Contact “Bounce”

Textbook

When a switch is actuated and contacts touch one another under the…

Circuit Wiring

Textbook

So far, we’ve been analyzing single-battery, single-resistor…

Common Sources of Hazard

Textbook

Of course, there is a danger of electrical shock when directly…

Mutual Inductors

Textbook

Mutual inductors are inductors that capitalize the effect of mutual…

Polyphase Power Systems

Worksheets - Connectors

Explain the difference between a balanced polyphase system and an…

Practical Considerations - Capacitors

Textbook

Capacitors, like all electrical components, have limitations that must…

Analog Lab - Introduction

Textbook

In this series of hands-on electronics experiments, build analog circuits, including amplifiers, comparators, oscillators, and more. Following the step-by-step instructions will help you understand and appreciate analog systems.

Voltmeter Design

Textbook

As was stated earlier, most meter movements are sensitive devices.…

AC Lab - Frequency Analysis

Textbook

In this hands-on AC electronics experiment, use the frequency spectrum display from an oscilloscope program to observe waveforms from a musical keyboard and learn about spectral analysis.

Intro Lab - Electromagnetic Induction

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will learn about electromagnetic induction using an electromagnet and a permanent magnet.

The Instrumentation Amplifier

Textbook

What Is an Instrumentation Amplifier? An instrumentation amplifier…

Design Project: Audio Tone Control

Worksheets - Connectors

Suppose you were installing a high-power stereo system in your car,…

Using Multiple Combinational Circuits

Textbook

As an example of using several circuits together, we are going to make…

Power Density Calculator

Tools

A tool designed to calculate the power density of an antenna

Passive Integrator and Differentiator Circuits

Worksheets - Connectors

∫f(x) dx Calculus alert! Calculus is a branch of mathematics that…

Valence and Crystal Structure

Textbook

Valence: The electrons in the outermost shell, or valence shell, are…

Intro Lab - Circuit With a Switch

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will control a light with a switch and learn the basics of connecting toggle (on/off) switches into circuits.

The Shockley Diode

Textbook

Our exploration of thyristors begins with a device called the…

Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

Textbook

You might have noticed on the table for specific resistances that all…

Voltage Divider Circuits

Textbook

Let’s analyze a simple series circuit and determine the voltage…

Finite-length Transmission Lines

Textbook

A transmission line of infinite length is an interesting abstraction,…

Simulating JFET Circuits Using LTspice

Textbook

Learn about junction field effect transistors (JFETs), their equations, and how to model and simulate JFETs in LTspice.

Introduction to Mixed-Frequency AC Signals

Textbook

In our study of AC circuits thus far, we’ve explored circuits…

Design Project: Audio Power Amplifier

Worksheets - Connectors

Explain how the microphone in your amplifier works. How, exactly, does…

555 Lab - Oscillator With Hysteresis

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build an oscillator with hysteresis from a Schmitt trigger and learn how to use it to create an RC oscillator and a method to configure a 555 timer as an astable multivibrator.

Physical Effects of Electricity

Worksheets - Connectors

Certain substances are known to physically deform (shorten or…

Si Lab - A Simple BJT Current Mirror Circuit

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a simple current mirror using matched bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and learn about current mirror circuit limitations, the temperature dependence of BJTs, and thermal runaway.

Introduction to Conductance and Conductors

Textbook

By now you should be well aware of the correlation between electrical…

The Unijunction Transistor (UJT)

Textbook

Unijunction transistor: Although a unijunction transistor is not a…

Multiplexers

Textbook

A multiplexer, abbreviated mux, is a device that has multiple inputs…

Analog Lab - Op Amp Integrator

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build an analog integrator using an operational amplifier and learn about integration functions, op amp input bias currents, and how to limit the voltage swing of a potentiometer.

Edge Coupled Microstrip Impedance Calculator

Tools

This tool helps calculate the impedance of an edge-coupled microstrip.

The J-K Flip-Flop

Textbook

Another variation on a theme of bistable multivibrators is the J-K…

Design Project: Sensitive Audio Detector

Worksheets - Connectors

The choice of step-down transformers to use in a project such as this…

Applications of Resonance

Textbook

So far, the phenomenon of resonance appears to be a useless curiosity,…

Quantum Devices

Textbook

Most integrated circuits are digital, based on MOS (CMOS) transistors.…

Current Divider Circuits

Worksheets - Connectors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Inductive Reactance

Worksheets - Connectors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Regulated Power Sources

Worksheets - Connectors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

JFET Biasing Techniques

Textbook

Using an example, learn about the different bias techniques for junction field effect transistors (JFETs) like the constant voltage bias, self-bias configuration, and voltage divider biasing.

Sum and Product Notation

Textbook

For reference, this section introduces the terminology used in some…

Read-Only Memory (ROM)

Textbook

Read-only memory (ROM) is similar in design to static or dynamic RAM…

Three-phase Power Systems

Textbook

What is Split-Phase Power Systems? Split-phase power systems achieve…