Categories

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

Textbook

Before the advent of solid-state logic circuits, logical control…

Relay Construction

Textbook

Electricity and Magnetism An electric current through a conductor will…

Bipolar Junction Transistors as Switches

Worksheets - PLCs

Solid-state switching circuits usually keep their constituent…

Electrical Isolation

Textbook

SPICE analysis of Electrical Isolation Aside from the ability to…

ElectroStatic Discharge

Textbook

At the start of this book, we discussed static electricity and how it…

Network Protocols

Textbook

Aside from the issues of the physical network (signal types and…

Network Topology

Textbook

Point-to-Point Connecting two digital devices with a network, would…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

Vacuum Tube Audio Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One 12AX7 dual triode vacuum tube Two power…

Step-up, Step-down, and Isolation Transformers

Worksheets - PLCs

Calculate the voltage output by the secondary winding of a transformer…

Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Kirchhoff’s Laws

Worksheets - PLCs

Many electronic circuits use what is called a split or a dual power…

Semiconductor Manufacturing Techniques

Textbook

The manufacture of only silicon based semiconductors is described…

The Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

Textbook

Shockley Diodes and Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) Shockley…

Stepper Motors

Textbook

Stepper Motor vs Servo Motor A stepper motor is a…

Tesla Polyphase Induction Motors

Textbook

Most AC motors are induction motors. Induction motors are favored due…

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

Textbook

Before the advent of solid-state logic circuits, logical control…

High Voltage Ohmmeters

Textbook

Most ohmmeters of the design shown in the previous section utilize a…

Winding Configurations

Textbook

Transformers with Multiple Secondaries Transformers are very versatile…

Networks and Busses

Textbook

The wires between the tank and the monitoring location is  called…

Common-Emitter Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One NPN transistor—model 2N2222 or 2N3403…

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Worksheets - PLCs

The circuit shown here is a four-bit analog-to-digital converter…

Scientific Notation and Metric Prefixes

Worksheets - PLCs

Write the following exponential expressions in expanded form: 101 =…

Design Project: Audio Media-Based Signal Generator

Worksheets - PLCs

Identify some different ways you can create the sine-wave audio tracks…

Binary Count Sequence

Textbook

If we examine a four-bit binary count sequence from 0000 to 1111, a…

Valence and Crystal Structure

Textbook

Valence: The electrons in the outermost shell, or valence shell, are…

Voltage Divider Calculator

Tools

The voltage divider is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

The Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

Textbook

Shockley Diodes and Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) Shockley…

The Gated S-R Latch

Textbook

It is sometimes useful in logic circuits to have a multivibrator which…

Design Project: LED Stroboscope

Worksheets - PLCs

A technician uses a stroboscope to “freeze” the rotation of a…

Divided Feedback

Textbook

If we add a voltage divider to the negative feedback wiring so that…

Power Supply Circuits

Textbook

There are three major kinds of power supplies: unregulated (also…

Class B Audio Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Four 6 volt batteries Dual operational amplifier,…

Induction Motor, Large

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS AC power source: 120VAC Capacitor, 3.3 µF…

The NOT Gate

Textbook

The single-transistor inverter circuit illustrated earlier is actually…

Other Diode Technologies

Textbook

Varicap or varactor diodes A variable capacitance diode is known as a…

CMOS 555 Long Duration Minimum Parts Red LED Flasher

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two AAA Batteries Battery Clip (Radio Shack…

Complex Vector Addition

Textbook

If vectors with uncommon angles are added, their magnitudes (lengths)…

T-Pad Attenuator Calculator

Tools

This calculator helps you determine the values of the resistors R1 and R2 to be used for a T-pad attenuator.

Voltage Multipliers (Doublers, Triplers, Quadruplers, and More)

Textbook

A voltage multiplier is a specialized rectifier circuit…