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The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) as a Switch

Textbook

Bipolar junction transistors (Also known as BJTs) can be used as an…

DC Motor Control Circuits

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How is it possible to electrically measure the torque output by a…

Relay Construction

Textbook

Electricity and Magnetism An electric current through a conductor will…

The S-R Latch

Textbook

A bistable multivibrator has two stable states, as indicated by the…

Series and Parallel AC Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

What is Alternating Current (AC)?

Textbook

Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as…

Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

The interlock contacts installed in the previous section’s motor…

Boolean Algebra

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Transistor as a Switch

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

AC Motor Control Circuits

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Perhaps the most challenging aspect of interpreting ladder diagrams,…

Transformer—Power Supply

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Power transformer, 120VAC step-down to 12VAC,…

CMOS Logic Gates

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Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

High Voltage Ohmmeters

Textbook

Most ohmmeters of the design shown in the previous section utilize a…

Linear Computational Circuitry

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Digital Logic Functions

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We can construct a simple logic functions for our hypothetical lamp…

Flip-Flop Circuits

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Switches, Hand Actuated

Textbook

A switch is an electrical component that can “make” or…

Time Constant Calculations

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Switches

Worksheets - Switches

What is the purpose of the switch shown in this schematic diagram?

“Ladder” Diagrams

Textbook

Ladder diagrams are specialized schematics commonly used to document…

Miscellaneous Diode Applications

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Reluctance Motor

Textbook

The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an…

Switches, Electrically Actuated (Relays)

Textbook

The structure behind ladder logic is based on the electrical ladder…

Time-delay Relays

Textbook

What are Time-Delay Relays? Some relays are constructed with a kind of…

Step-up, Step-down, and Isolation Transformers

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Calculate the voltage output by the secondary winding of a transformer…

Fail-safe Design

Textbook

Logic circuits, whether comprised of electromechanical relays or…

Inductor Commutating Circuits

Textbook

A popular use of diodes is for the mitigation of inductive…

Introduction to AC Motors

Textbook

After the introduction of the DC electrical distribution system by…

Permissive and Interlock Circuits

Textbook

A practical application of switch and relay logic is in control…

Commutating Diode

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6 volt battery Power transformer, 120VAC step-down…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

The J-K Flip-Flop

Textbook

Another variation on a theme of bistable multivibrators is the J-K…

Basic Electromagnetic Relays

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Solid-state Relays

Textbook

Limitations of Electromechanical Relays As versatile as…

Switch Types

Textbook

Though it may seem strange to cover the elementary topic of electrical…

Other Specialized Motors

Textbook

Shaded Pole Induction Motor An easy way to provide starting torque to…

The TRIAC

Textbook

SCRs are unidirectional (one-way) current devices, making them useful…

Series and Parallel AC Circuits

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Introduction to Diodes And Rectifiers

Textbook

All About Diodes A diode is an electrical device allowing current to…

Polyphase Motor Design

Textbook

AC Motors Perhaps the most important benefit of polyphase AC power…

Positive Feedback OpAmp Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Negative Binary Numbers

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With addition being easily accomplished, we can perform the operation…

PWM Power Controller

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Four 6 volt batteries One capacitor, 100 µF…

Active-mode Operation (JFET)

Textbook

JFETs, like bipolar transistors, are able to “throttle”…

Resistors

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Shown here is the schematic symbol for a resistor: What is the purpose…

The Shockley Diode

Textbook

Our exploration of thyristors begins with a device called the…

Temperature Coefficients of Resistance Table

Textbook

Temperature coefficient (α) per degree C: Material Element/Alloy…

Digital Logic With Feedback

Textbook

With simple gate and combinational logic circuits, there is a definite…

Capacitor Sizing Equation

Textbook

Capacitance Formula     Permittivity of Dielectric  …

Logic Simplification With Karnaugh Maps

Textbook

The logic simplification examples that we have done so far could have…

Delta and Wye 3-Phase Circuits

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Label where each of the following electrical quantities would be found…

DeMorgan’s Theorems

Textbook

A mathematician named DeMorgan developed a pair of important rules…

Time Constant Equations

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Value of time constant in series RC and RL circuits   Time…

Voltage Divider Circuits

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Multiplexers

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A multiplexer, abbreviated mux, is a device that has multiple inputs…

Numbers versus Numeration

Textbook

It is imperative to understand that the type of numeration system used…

Contributors (7)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Resistors Types

Textbook

These are the most common types of resistors available. Resistors…

AC phase

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If we were to express the series-connected DC voltages as phasors…

Capacitance, Reactance, and Admittance Calculator

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A calculator for solving the capacitance, reactance, and admittance of a capacitor.