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3 Methods for Compensating Localized Heat Generation in Smart Thermostats

In partnership with Texas Instruments

This video goes through one of the most prominent issues with thermostat design, accounting for the…

3D Time of Flight: Understanding the system trade-offs

In partnership with Texas Instruments

Learn how design parameters impact system performance.

pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Textbook

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was named because its operation…

Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

Learning Objectives Rheostat use Wiring a potentiometer as a rheostat…

Sensitive Voltage Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio headphones…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

Physiological Effects of Electricity

Textbook

Most of us have experienced some form of electric “shock,”…

Voltage Divider Calculator

Tools

The voltage divider is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

Pulsed-light Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN transistor—models…

Strain Gauges

Textbook

If a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier…

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

Differential Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Two NPN…

Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Voltmeter Impact on Measured Circuit

Textbook

Every meter impacts the circuit it is measuring to some extent, just…

Switches, Process Actuated

Textbook

It is very important to keep in mind that the “normal” contact…

Static Electricity Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One N-channel junction field-effect transistor,…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Battery Construction

Textbook

The word battery simply means a group of similar components. In…

Latch Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

What do you think this logic buffer gate will do, with the output…

SPICE Models

Textbook

The SPICE circuit simulation program provides for modeling diodes in…

Voltage Follower

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One NPN transistor—models 2N2222 or 2N3403…

Polyphase Motor Design

Textbook

AC Motors Perhaps the most important benefit of polyphase AC power…

Design Project: Radio Transmitter

Worksheets - Sensors

Research the FCC (Federal Communication Commission) guidelines on…

A Binary Adder

Textbook

Suppose we wanted to build a device that could add two binary bits…

Practical Considerations - Batteries

Textbook

When connecting batteries together to form larger “banks”…

Voltmeter Impact on Measured Circuit

Textbook

Every meter impacts the circuit it is measuring to some extent, just…

Circuit Components

Textbook

Remember that this tutorial is not exhaustive by any means, and that…

Precision Voltage Follower

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model 1458 or 353…

Tracking ADC

Textbook

A third variation on the counter-DAC-based converter theme is, in my…

Scientific Notation

Textbook

In many disciplines of science and engineering, very large and very…

Impedance Transformation

Textbook

Standing waves at the resonant frequency points of an open- or…

Transformer—Power Supply

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Power transformer, 120VAC step-down to 12VAC,…

Reluctance Motor

Textbook

The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an…

Basic Electricity Worksheet

Worksheets - Sensors

What is the purpose of the switch shown in this schematic diagram?

TTL NAND and AND gates

Textbook

Suppose we altered our basic open-collector inverter circuit, adding a…

DeMorgan’s Theorems

Textbook

A mathematician named DeMorgan developed a pair of important rules…

Common Sources of Hazard

Textbook

Of course, there is a danger of electrical shock when directly…

Sensitive Voltage Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio headphones…

Mutual Inductance

Textbook

If two coils of wire are brought into close proximity with each other…

The R/2R DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)

Textbook

The R/2R DAC circuit is an alternative to the binary-weighted-input…

Display Tubes

Textbook

In addition to performing tasks of amplification and switching, tubes…

An Electric Pendulum

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in the form of an electric field, and…

Time-delay Relays

Textbook

What are Time-Delay Relays? Some relays are constructed with a kind of…

High-impedance Voltmeter

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model TL082 recommended…

Contributors (15)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Contactors

Textbook

All About Contactors When a relay is used to switch a large amount of…

Solid-state Relays

Textbook

As versatile as electromechanical relays can be, they do suffer many…

Op-Amp Voltage and Gain Calculator

Tools

A calculator for computing the gain and output voltage of an operational amplifier

Stripline Max Current Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the maximum current that a stripline can handle

Phase Rotation

Textbook

Three-Phase Alternator Let’s take the three-phase alternator…

Numbers and Symbols

Textbook

The expression of numerical quantities is something we tend to take…

Switched Capacitor Circuitry

Worksheets - Sensors

Write an equation describing the precise mathematical relationship…

Capacitor Sizing Equation

Textbook

A formula for capacitance in picofarads using practical dimensions:

LED Resistor Calculator

Tools

An LED resistance calculator is perfect for when you have a single LED and need to know which resistor you should use.

Introduction to AC Circuits

Textbook

“AC” stands for Alternating Current, which can refer to either…

Practical Power Factor Correction

Textbook

When the need arises to correct for poor power factor in an AC power…

Switches

Worksheets - Sensors

What is the purpose of the switch shown in this schematic diagram?