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Differential Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Two NPN…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment…

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

Learning Objectives Rheostat use Wiring a potentiometer as a rheostat…

Switches, Process Actuated

Textbook

It is very important to keep in mind that the “normal”…

Pulsed-light Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

Look-up Tables

Textbook

Having learned about digital memory devices in the last chapter, we…

Voltage Divider Calculator

Tools

The voltage divider is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

Sensitive Voltage Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio…

Strain Gauges

Textbook

If a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier…

Voltmeter Impact on Measured Circuit

Textbook

Every meter impacts the circuit it is measuring to some extent, just…

Single-ended and Differential Amplifiers

Textbook

For ease of drawing complex circuit diagrams, electronic amplifiers…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Textbook

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was named because its operation…

pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Flyback Switch Mode Regulator Calculator

Tools

A calculator for computing several parameters needed in the design of a flyback switch mode regulator

Introduction to Electron Tubes

Textbook

An often neglected area of study in modern electronics is that of…

AC Bridge Circuits

Textbook

As we saw with DC measurement circuits, the circuit configuration…

Making a Venn Diagram Look Like a Karnaugh Map

Textbook

Starting with circle A in a rectangular A’ universe in figure…

Introduction to Conductance and Conductors

Textbook

By now you should be well aware of the correlation between electrical…

Standing Waves and Resonance

Textbook

Whenever there is a mismatch of impedance between transmission line…

Inductor Sizing Equation

Textbook

The Inductance Formula     Wheeler’s formulas for…

A 50-Ohm Cable?

Textbook

Early in my explorations of electricity, I came across a length of…

Capacitor Impedance Calculator

Tools

This tool calculates a capacitor's reactance for a given capacitance value and signal frequency.

Transistors, Insulated-gate Field-effect (IGFET or MOSFET)

Textbook

We have the symbols for depletion mode and enhancement mode MOSFETs -…

Numbers and Symbols

Textbook

The expression of numerical quantities is something we tend to take…

Stepper Motors

Textbook

Stepper Motor vs Servo Motor A stepper motor is a…

Likely Failures in Unproven Systems

Textbook

“All men are liable to error;” —John Locke Whereas…

Voltage Divider

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Calculator (or pencil and paper for doing…

Pulse Width Modulation

Textbook

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) uses digital signals to control power…

Potato Battery

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One large potato One lemon (optional) Strip of…

Practical Considerations - Capacitors

Textbook

Capacitors, like all electrical components, have limitations that must…

Calculus for Electric Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

∫f(x) dx Calculus alert! Calculus is a branch of mathematics that…

Design Project: LED Stroboscope

Worksheets - Sensors

A technician uses a stroboscope to “freeze” the rotation of a…

Voltage/Current Converter OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Waveguide Calculator (Rectangular)

Tools

This tool calculates the cutoff frequency of a rectangular waveguide

Friis Transmission Calculator

Tools

This calculator computes the power received by an antenna using Friis formula

Data - Resistance & Superconductor

Textbook

Tables of specific resistance and temperature coefficient of…

Switches, Electrically Actuated (Relays)

Textbook

The structure behind ladder logic is based on the electrical ladder…

Power Dissipation

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Calculator (or pencil and paper for doing…

IGFET Quirks

Textbook

Rectifying Diodes

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Transistor as a Switch

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

Contributors (15)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Signal Coupling

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6 volt battery One capacitor, 0.22 µF…

Servo Motor Systems

Worksheets - Sensors

Explain the operation of this “H-bridge” motor control circuit: At…

True, Reactive, and Apparent Power

Textbook

Reactive Power We know that reactive loads such as inductors and…

Likely Failures in Proven Systems

Textbook

The following problems are arranged in order from most likely to least…

Current Mirror BJTs

Textbook

Bipolar Junction Transistor or BJT Current Mirror An often-used…

Phasor Mathematics

Worksheets - Sensors

Provide a definition for phasor, as the term applies to electrical…

Integrated Circuits

Textbook

  A Logic Gate is assigned as an elementary building block of…

Network Protocols

Textbook

Aside from the issues of the physical network (signal types and…

Full-wave Bridge Rectifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply (6 volt output) Four…

Basic Oscilloscope Operation

Worksheets - Sensors

An oscilloscope is a very useful piece of electronic test equipment.…