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Pressure Unit Conversion Calculator

Tools

This calculator will convert pressure values to ten different standard units for pressure.

Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Textbook

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was named because its operation…

DC Lab - Thermoelectricity

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build a thermocouple to measure temperature changes and learn about the Seebeck effect.

DC Lab - Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will use a potentiometer as a variable resistor to control the speed of a motor and learn how to connect a potentiometer as a rheostat.

Lorentz Force Calculator

Tools

This calculator will determine the combined Lorentz force exerted on a charged particle moving through both an electric field and a magnetic field.

Voltage Divider Calculator

Tools

The voltage divider is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

Strain Gauges

Textbook

If a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier…

DC Lab - 4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will perform a 4-wire Kelvin resistance measurement and learn how to accurately measure resistance.

Si Lab - Differential Amplifier

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a BJT differential amplifier and learn about a fundamental building block that is the basis of most operational amplifiers.

Switches, Process Actuated

Textbook

It is very important to keep in mind that the “normal”…

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

Wheatstone Bridge Calculator

Tools

This calculator helps determine the resistance of a variable resistor within a Wheatstone bridge circuit or the differential voltage created across the bridge terminals.

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Si Lab - JFET Switching Circuit and Static Electricity Sensor

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, use a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) to build a sensitive switching circuit and learn about JFET current gain.

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

Physiological Effects of Electricity

Textbook

Most of us have experienced some form of electric “shock,”…

Switch Types

Textbook

Though it may seem strange to cover the elementary topic of electrical…

555 Lab - Red LED Flasher

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build a red LED flasher and learn a useful application of the versatile 555 timer IC.

Current Divider Circuits and the Current Divider Formula

Textbook

A parallel circuit is often called a current divider for its ability…

Zener Diodes

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Low-pass Filters

Textbook

By definition, a low-pass filter is a circuit offering easy passage to…

Mixed-Frequency Signals

Worksheets - Sensors

What is a harmonic frequency? If an oscillator circuit outputs a…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

RC Time Constant Calculator

Tools

The time constant of a series RC circuit is the product of the resistance and capacitance. Given two of the three values—resistance, capacitance, or RC time constant—this tool will calculate the missing third variable.

Mutual Inductance

Worksheets - Sensors

When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire, what…

Basic Circuit Troubleshooting

Worksheets - Sensors

Determine if the light bulb will de-energize for each of the following…

Batteries

Worksheets - Sensors

If I wanted to build a battery-powered electric drill, would it be…

Insulator Breakdown Voltage

Textbook

The atoms in insulating materials have very tightly-bound electrons,…

Tubes versus Semiconductors

Textbook

Devoting a whole chapter in a modern electronics text to the design…

DC Lab - Parallel Batteries

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will connect batteries in parallel to power a light and learn the relationship between the individual battery currents and the total system current.

Diode Ratings

Textbook

In addition to forward voltage drop (Vf) and peak inverse voltage…

Logarithms

Textbook

Definition of a Logarithm     “log” denotes a…

Logic Signal Voltage Levels

Textbook

Input Voltages for Logic Gates Logic gate circuits are designed to…

Microprocessors

Textbook

Early computer science pioneers such as Alan Turing and John Von…

Counters

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Mutual Inductance

Textbook

If two coils of wire are brought into close proximity with each other…

Passive Integrator and Differentiator Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

∫f(x) dx Calculus alert! Calculus is a branch of mathematics that…

BJT Quirks

Textbook

An ideal transistor would show 0% distortion in amplifying a signal.…

Impedance Matching With Transformers

Worksheets - Sensors

Suppose you were to take a 3 kW electric heater rated for 240 VAC and…

AC Lab - Using a Transformer to Build a 12 VAC Power Supply

Textbook

In this hands-on AC electronics experiment, build a 12 V alternating current (AC) power supply using a step-down transformer and learn about transformer operation and the purpose of tapped windings.

High-Reliability Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze relay…

Series R, L, and C

Textbook

Let’s take the following example circuit and analyze it:  …

Summary of Filters

Textbook

As lengthy as this chapter has been up to this point, it only begins…

Larger 5 & 6-variable Karnaugh Maps

Textbook

Larger Karnaugh maps reduce larger logic designs. How large is large…

Trigonometric Equivalencies

Textbook

Electrical Connections

Worksheets - Sensors

What, exactly, is necessary to establish electrical continuity between…

Resistor Color Codes

Textbook

Try out our Resistor Color Code Calculator in our Tools section.…

The Importance of Electrical Safety

Textbook

With this lesson, I hope to avoid a common mistake found in…

Polarity of voltage drops

Textbook

When using conventional current flow, we can trace the direction of…

Millman’s Theorem

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Metric Notation

Textbook

The metric system, besides being a collection of measurement units for…

Resistance

Textbook

The circuit in the previous section is not a very practical one. In…

Solving Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge Circuits Via Mesh Current Method

Textbook

An unbalanced Wheatstone bridge cannot be solved using simple series…

Simple Parallel (Tank Circuit) Resonance

Textbook

Resonance in a Tank Circuit A condition of resonance will be…

IGFET Quirks

Textbook

Voltage Multipliers (Doublers, Triplers, Quadruplers, and More)

Textbook

A voltage multiplier is a specialized rectifier circuit producing…