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Synchronous Motors

Textbook

Single Phase Synchronous Motors Single-phase synchronous motors are…

Switches, Process Actuated

Textbook

It is very important to keep in mind that the “normal”…

Voltmeter Impact on Measured Circuit

Textbook

Every meter impacts the circuit it is measuring to some extent, just…

Single-ended and Differential Amplifiers

Textbook

For ease of drawing complex circuit diagrams, electronic amplifiers…

Look-up Tables

Textbook

Having learned about digital memory devices in the last chapter, we…

Sensitive Voltage Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio…

Static Electricity Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One N-channel junction field-effect transistor,…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment…

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

Learning Objectives Rheostat use Wiring a potentiometer as a rheostat…

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Textbook

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was named because its operation…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Pulsed-light Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

Differential Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Two NPN…

Physiological Effects of Electricity

Textbook

Most of us have experienced some form of electric “shock,”…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

Time Constant Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

Generally speaking, how many “time constants” worth of time does…

Radicals

Textbook

Definition of a Radical Given the expression where “x” is…

Power in Electric Circuits

Textbook

In addition to voltage and current, there is another important…

Differential Transistor Amplifiers

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Tubes versus Semiconductors

Textbook

Devoting a whole chapter in a modern electronics text to the design…

Low-pass Filters

Textbook

By definition, a low-pass filter is a circuit offering easy passage to…

Phase-Locked Loops

Worksheets - Sensors

This is a schematic for a simple VCO: The oscillator is of the RC…

The “Buffer” Gate

Textbook

If we were to connect two inverter gates together so that the output…

Power Conversion Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Electrical Connections

Worksheets - Sensors

What, exactly, is necessary to establish electrical continuity between…

Numbers and Symbols

Textbook

The expression of numerical quantities is something we tend to take…

Stripline Trace Width Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the trace width of a stripline based on the maximum current rating

Static Electricity

Textbook

It was discovered centuries ago that certain types of materials would…

Multi-Stage Transistor Amplifiers

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Basic identities

Textbook

Additive Identity a + 0 = a Multiplicative Identity 1a = a…

Capacitor Sizing Equation

Textbook

Capacitance Formula     Permittivity of Dielectric  …

Atomic Structure

Worksheets - Sensors

Shown here is a simplified representation of an atom: the smallest…

Potato Battery

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One large potato One lemon (optional) Strip of…

Power Quality Measurement

Textbook

It used to be with large AC power systems that “power…

Oscillator Circuits

Textbook

Phase shift oscillator. R1C1, R2C2, and R3C3 each provide 60° of…

Magnetic Units of Measurement

Textbook

If the burden of two systems of measurement for common quantities…

Antenna Downtilt and Coverage Calculator

Tools

This calculator will determine the correct antenna downtilt angle given the heights of the antennas and distance between them.

Example Circuits and Netlists

Textbook

The following circuits are pre-tested netlists for SPICE 2g6, complete…

Ring Counters

Textbook

If the output of a shift register is fed back to the input. a ring…

Stripline Trace Width Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the trace width of a stripline based on the maximum current rating

Modern Nonmechanical Memory

Textbook

Now we can proceed to studying specific types of digital storage…

Voltage and Current in a Practical Circuit

Textbook

Because it takes energy to force charge to flow against the opposition…

Inverting Op-Amp Resistor Calculator

Tools

This calculator determines the bias and feedback of resistors for an inverting op-amp.

Sound Cancellation

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply Two audio speakers…

Special Transformers and Applications

Textbook

Impedance Matching Because transformers can step voltage and current…

Arithmetic with Scientific Notation

Textbook

The benefits of scientific notation do not end with ease of writing…

Inductor Sizing Equation

Textbook

The Inductance Formula     Wheeler’s formulas for…

Millman’s Theorem

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Oscillator Circuits

Textbook

Phase shift oscillator. R1C1, R2C2, and R3C3 each provide 60° of…

Switches, Hand Actuated

Textbook

A switch is an electrical component that can “make” or…

Rectifying Diodes

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Potentiometer as a Rheostat

Textbook

Learning Objectives Rheostat use Wiring a potentiometer as a rheostat…

Transistor Ratings and Packages (JFET)

Textbook

Using Multiple Combinational Circuits

Textbook

As an example of using several circuits together, we are going to make…

Positive Feedback OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Sensors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…