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Introduction to Digital Communication

Textbook

In the design of large and complex digital systems, it is often…

Multiplexers and Demultiplexers

Worksheets - Processors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Why digital?

Textbook

Although many textbooks provide good introductions to digital memory…

The S-R Latch

Textbook

A bistable multivibrator has two stable states, as indicated by the…

Bipolar Junction Transistors as Switches

Worksheets - Processors

Solid-state switching circuits usually keep their constituent…

Digital Logic Signals

Worksheets - Processors

A rheostat (variable resistor) and a switch are both examples of…

Basic Electromagnetic Relays

Worksheets - Processors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze relay…

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

Textbook

Before the advent of solid-state logic circuits, logical control…

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Worksheets - Processors

The circuit shown here is a four-bit analog-to-digital converter…

Microcontroller Principles

Worksheets - Processors

Read the following quotation, and then research the term…

Networks and Busses

Textbook

The wires between the tank and the monitoring location is  called…

Shift Registers: Parallel-in, Serial-out (PISO) Conversion

Textbook

Parallel-in/ serial-out shift registers do everything that the…

Relay Construction

Textbook

Electricity and Magnetism An electric current through a conductor will…

Digital Lab - 10-bit Flashing LED Sequencer

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build and test an automated circuit that sequentially flashes 10 LED, and learn about counters, frequency dividers, and switch debouncing.

555 Timer Astable Oscillator Circuit

Tools

In an astable circuit, the output voltage alternates between VCC and 0 volts on a continuous basis. This calculator will help you design an oscillator using a 555 timer IC.

Universal Shift Registers: Parallel-in, Parallel-out

Textbook

The purpose of the parallel-in/ parallel-out shift register is to take…

The J-K Flip-Flop

Textbook

Another variation on a theme of bistable multivibrators is the J-K…

Design Project: Stepper Motor Driver

Worksheets - Processors

At first it may seem pointless to have the four buffer gates following…

Finite State Machines

Textbook

Up to now, every circuit that was presented was a combinatorial…

Boolean Algebra

Worksheets - Processors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Insulated Gate Field-Effect Transistors

Worksheets - Processors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Negative Binary Numbers

Textbook

With addition being easily accomplished, we can perform the operation…

555 Lab - Red LED Flasher

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build a red LED flasher and learn a useful application of the versatile 555 timer IC.

Larger 5 & 6-variable Karnaugh Maps

Textbook

Larger Karnaugh maps reduce larger logic designs. How large is large…

Digital Display Circuits

Worksheets - Processors

What is the purpose of a seven-segment decoder circuit? What is a…

Op-amp Circuits

Worksheets - Processors

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Boolean Algebraic Identities

Textbook

In mathematics, an identity is a statement true for all possible…

Basic Logic Gates

Worksheets - Processors

Identify the type of logic gate shown in this schematic diagram, and…

Edge-triggered Latches: Flip-Flops

Textbook

So far, we’ve studied both S-R and D latch circuits with enable…

Finite-state Machine

Textbook

Feedback is a fascinating engineering principle. It can turn a rather…

Programmable Logic Controllers

Worksheets - Processors

The Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC, was invented in the late…

Analog Lab - 555 Oscillator (Astable Multivibrator)

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build an oscillator using a 555 timer and learn the theory of operation of the 555 timer when configured as an astable multivibrator.

Asynchronous Counters

Textbook

In the previous section, we saw a circuit using one J-K flip-flop that…

Gate Universality

Textbook

NAND and NOR gates possess a special property: they are universal.…

555 Lab - Advanced Red LED Flasher

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build a red LED flasher with a transistor drive to control the current and learn how to use transistors to provide current gain and how to limit LED current.

Sum and Product Notation

Textbook

For reference, this section introduces the terminology used in some…

Digital Lab - Introduction

Textbook

In this collection of hands-on electronics experiments, build and test digital circuits and learn the fundamentals of digital logic circuits, including gates, counters, logic levels, hysteresis, memory, and more.

The D Latch

Textbook

Since the enable input on a gated S-R latch provides a way to latch…

Shift Registers: Serial-in, Serial-out

Textbook

Serial-in, serial-out shift registers delay data by one clock time for…

555 Lab - Oscillator With Hysteresis

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build an oscillator with hysteresis from a Schmitt trigger and learn how to use it to create an RC oscillator and a method to configure a 555 timer as an astable multivibrator.

Contributors (13)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Transistor Ratings and Packages (BJT)

Textbook

Like all electrical and electronic components, transistors are limited…

Connectors

Textbook

An electrical connector, is an electro-mechanical device used to join…

Resistors

Worksheets - Processors

Shown here is the schematic symbol for a resistor: What is the purpose…

Design Project: Audio Tone Control

Worksheets - Processors

Suppose you were installing a high-power stereo system in your car,…

Summary of Filters

Textbook

As lengthy as this chapter has been up to this point, it only begins…

IGFET Quirks

Textbook

Antenna Downtilt and Coverage Calculator

Tools

This calculator will determine the correct antenna downtilt angle given the heights of the antennas and distance between them.

Solving Simultaneous Equations: The Substitution Method and the Addition Method

Textbook

What are Simultaneous Equations and Systems of Equations? The terms…

How to Use Thevenin’s Theorem

Textbook

This page will walk you step-by-step through the process of…

Microstrip Max Current Calculator

Tools

A calculator for solving the maximum current a microstrip can handle.

Arithmetic with Scientific Notation

Textbook

The benefits of scientific notation do not end with ease of writing…

Introduction to Combinational Logic Functions

Textbook

The term “combinational” comes to us from mathematics. In…

Electrical Isolation

Textbook

SPICE analysis of Electrical Isolation Aside from the ability to…

Stripline Trace Width Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the trace width of a stripline based on the maximum current rating

Digital Logic Signals

Worksheets - Processors

A rheostat (variable resistor) and a switch are both examples of…

Microphones

Worksheets - Processors

Explain how a moving-coil, or dynamic microphone works. Identify how…

Control Circuits

Textbook

The Shockley Diode

Textbook

Our exploration of thyristors begins with a device called the…

Design Project: Signal Generator

Worksheets - Processors

Explain the principle of operation for the particular integrated…