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Mixed-Frequency Signals

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What is a harmonic frequency? If an oscillator circuit outputs a…

The Cascode Amplifier

Textbook

While the C-B (common-base) amplifier is known for wider bandwidth…

Junction Field-effect Transistors

Textbook

The field effect transistor was proposed by Julius Lilienfeld in US…

Performance-Based Assessments for Analog Integrated Circuit Competencies

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Active Filters

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Bandpass Filter Calculator

Tools

This calculates values of the inductance, capacitance of an inductor and capacitor used in a Butterworth LC bandpass filter.

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

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The circuit shown here is a four-bit analog-to-digital converter…

Passive Filter Circuits

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In very simple, qualitative terms, rate the impedance of capacitors…

Circuit Components

Textbook

Remember that this tutorial is not exhaustive by any means, and that…

Simple Parallel (Tank Circuit) Resonance

Textbook

Resonance in a Tank Circuit A condition of resonance will be…

Conventional Transistor Overview and Special Transistors

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A microcontroller is a specialized type of digital computer used to…

Insulated-gate Field-effect Transistors (MOSFET)

Textbook

The Insulated-Gate Field-Effect Transistor (IGFET), also known as…

Quantum Devices

Textbook

Most integrated circuits are digital, based on MOS (CMOS) transistors.…

Example Circuits and Netlists

Textbook

The following circuits are pre-tested netlists for SPICE 2g6, complete…

Radio Circuits

Textbook

(a) Crystal radio. (b) Modulated RF at antenna. (c) Rectified RF at…

Switched Capacitor Circuitry

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Write an equation describing the precise mathematical relationship…

The Junction Field-effect Transistor (JFET) as a Switch

Textbook

Like its bipolar cousin, the field-effect transistor may be used as an…

Class A BJT Amplifiers

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Resonant Filters

Textbook

So far, the filter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed…

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) theory

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Negative Feedback

Textbook

If we connect the output of an op-amp to its inverting input and apply…

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

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The circuit shown here is a four-bit analog-to-digital converter…

555 Monostable Multivibrator

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One 9V Battery Battery Clip (Radio Shack catalog #…

Emergency Response

Textbook

Despite lock-out/tag-out procedures and multiple repetitions of…

Circuits and the Speed of Light

Textbook

Suppose we had a simple one-battery, one-lamp circuit controlled by a…

Series DC Circuits Practice Worksheet with Answers

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In this circuit, three resistors receive the same amount of current (4…

Simple Op-Amp

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Four NPN…

Electron Versus Conventional Flow

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In this electrical circuit, trace the direction of current through the…

The R/2R DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)

Textbook

The R/2R DAC circuit is an alternative to the binary-weighted-input…

Bipolar Transistor Biasing Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

AC phase

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If we were to express the series-connected DC voltages as phasors…

BJT Quirks

Textbook

An ideal transistor would show 0% distortion in amplifying a signal.…

Inverting Op-Amp Resistor Calculator

Tools

This calculator determines the bias and feedback of resistors for an inverting op-amp.

Tracking ADC

Textbook

A third variation on the counter-DAC-based converter theme is, in my…

Circuit Components

Textbook

Remember that this tutorial is not exhaustive by any means, and that…

Autotransformers

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How much voltage is there between the following pairs of points in…

Vacuum Tube Audio Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One 12AX7 dual triode vacuum tube Two power…

Noise Figure and Noise Temperature Calculator

Tools

This calculator computes the noise figure and noise temperature in a system

Precision Voltage Follower

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model 1458 or 353…

Binary Overflow

Textbook

One caveat with signed binary numbers is that of overflow, where the…

Circuit With a Switch

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Low-voltage incandescent lamp…

Contributors (8)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) theory

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Metric Notation

Textbook

The metric system, besides being a collection of measurement units for…

Active Loads in Amplifier Circuits

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We know that the current in a series circuit may be calculated with…

Balanced Attenuator Calculator

Tools

This balanced attenuator calculator helps you determine the resistor (R1) values for a balanced attenuator.

Noninverting Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model 1458 or 353…

555 Ramp Generator

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6 volt batteries One capacitor, 470 µF…

AC Negative Feedback OpAmp Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

What Is the Skin Effect?

Textbook

The Skin Depth of Copper in Electrical Engineering As previously…

Waveform Analysis

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS IBM-compatible personal computer with sound card,…

Wire-by-Number project kit introduction

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Wire-by-Number project: simple voltage divider Description: Build a…

Elementary Circuits

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In the simplest terms you can think of, define what an electrical…

Pulsed-light Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

Stripline Trace Width Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the trace width of a stripline based on the maximum current rating

AC Resistor Circuits (Inductive)

Textbook

Instantaneous Values in AC Circuits Pure resistive AC circuit:…

CMOS Logic Gates

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Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

The Common-source Amplifier (IGFET)

Textbook

Bipolar Junction Transistors in Active Mode

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

BJT Amplifier Troubleshooting

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As an instructor of electronics, I am called upon frequently to help…