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Passive Filter Circuits

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In very simple, qualitative terms, rate the impedance of capacitors…

Bandpass Filter Calculator

Tools

This calculates values of the inductance, capacitance of an inductor and capacitor used in a Butterworth LC bandpass filter.

Rectifier/Filter Circuit

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply Bridge rectifier pack…

Resonant Filters

Textbook

So far, the filter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed…

Active Filters

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

The Tetrode

Textbook

As the name suggests, the tetrode tube contains four elements: cathode…

Simple Op-Amp

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Four NPN…

Transistor Ratings and Packages (BJT)

Textbook

Like all electrical and electronic components, transistors are limited…

Build a Transformer

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Steel flat bar, 4 pieces Miscellaneous bolts,…

Stepper Motors

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

High-Reliability Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze relay…

The R/2R DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)

Textbook

The R/2R DAC circuit is an alternative to the binary-weighted-input…

Circuit Components

Textbook

Remember that this tutorial is not exhaustive by any means, and that…

Voltage, Current, and Resistance

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Voltage is commonly defined as “electrical pressure.” The unit of…

Time Constant Equations

Textbook

Value of time constant in series RC and RL circuits Time constant in…

Zener Diodes

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

High-pass Filters

Textbook

A high-pass filter’s task is just the opposite of a low-pass…

Decibels

Textbook

The Bel is Used to Represent Gain In its simplest form, an…

Non-Inverting Op-Amp Resistor Calculator

Tools

This calculator determines the bias and feedback of resistors for a non-inverting Op-Amp

Junction Diodes

Textbook

There was some historic crude, but usable were some historic crude,…

Ammeter Design

Textbook

Ammeters Measure Electrical Current A meter designed to measure…

Transistors, Insulated-gate Field-effect (IGFET or MOSFET)

Textbook

AC Phase

Textbook

Things start to get complicated when we need to relate two or more AC…

Phase Rotation

Textbook

Three-Phase Alternator Let’s take the three-phase alternator…

AC Bridge Circuits

Textbook

As we saw with DC measurement circuits, the circuit configuration…

Transistor as a Switch

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries One NPN…

Microstrip Max Current Calculator

Tools

A calculator for solving the maximum current a microstrip can handle.

Audio Oscillator

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Three NPN…

Programmable Logic Technology

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Define the following acronyms as they apply to digital logic circuits:…

Embedded Microstrip Impedance Calculator

Tools

This calculator helps you compute the characteristic impedance of an embedded microstrip.

Harmonic Phase Sequences

Textbook

In the last section, we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its…

Simple Series Circuits

Textbook

On this page, we’ll outline the three principles you should…

Automotive Alternator

Textbook

Project Parts and Materials Automotive alternator (one required, but…

Junction Field-effect Transistors

Textbook

The field effect transistor was proposed by Julius Lilienfeld in US…

Design Project: Audio Tone Control

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Suppose you were installing a high-power stereo system in your car,…

Semiconductor Manufacturing Techniques

Textbook

The manufacture of only silicon based semiconductors is described…

Nonlinear Conduction

Textbook

“Advances are made by answering questions. Discoveries are made…

Polar Form and Rectangular Form Notation for Complex Numbers

Textbook

In order to work with complex numbers without drawing vectors, we…

Selsyn (Synchro) Motors

Textbook

Normally, the rotor windings of a wound rotor induction motor are…

Design Project: Audio Power Amplifier

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Explain how the microphone in your amplifier works. How, exactly, does…

Three-phase Y and Delta Configurations

Textbook

Three-phase Wye(Y) Connection Initially, we explored the idea of…

Finite-state Machine

Textbook

Feedback is a fascinating engineering principle. It can turn a rather…

Capacitance, Reactance, and Admittance Calculator

Tools

A calculator for solving the capacitance, reactance, and admittance of a capacitor.

TTL Logic Gates

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Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

Physical Effects of Electricity

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Certain substances are known to physically deform (shorten or…