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Transistor Biasing Calculations

Textbook

Although transistor switching circuits operate without bias, it is…

Design Project: DC Voltage Regulator

Worksheets - Amplifiers

It may seem difficult to even start on a project such as this, with no…

High-impedance Voltmeter

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model TL082 recommended…

Design Project: Audio Media-Based Signal Generator

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Identify some different ways you can create the sine-wave audio tracks…

Operational Amplifier Models

Textbook

While mention of operational amplifiers typically provokes visions of…

Simple Op-Amp

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Four NPN…

OpAmp Oscillator Circuits

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Open-Loop OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Determine what the magnitude and polarity of the voltmeter’s…

Simultaneous Equations for Circuit Analysis

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Solve this equation for the value of x: x + 5 = 8 How many exact…

Comparator with Hysteresis (Schmitt Trigger) Calculator

Tools

This calculator will compute the required resistor ratio (R2/R1) and reference voltage (VREF) to create the desired high (VTH) and low (VTL) threshold voltages in a non-inverting comparator circuit with hysteresis (commonly called a Schmitt trigger).

Special-purpose Diodes

Textbook

Schottky diodes Schottky diodes are constructed of a metal-to-N…

Slope (integrating) ADC

Textbook

So far, we’ve only been able to escape the sheer volume of…

Class A BJT Amplifiers

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Negative Feedback

Textbook

If we connect the output of an op-amp to its inverting input and apply…

Power Conversion Circuits

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Circuit Components

Textbook

Remember that this tutorial is not exhaustive by any means, and that…

Vol III. Credits

Textbook

All entries arranged in alphabetical order of surname. Major…

Non-Inverting Op-Amp Resistor Calculator

Tools

This calculator determines the bias and feedback of resistors for a non-inverting Op-Amp

Divided Feedback

Textbook

If we add a voltage divider to the negative feedback wiring so that…

Class B BJT Amplifiers

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Stepper Motors

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Half-wave Rectifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply (6-volt output) 6-volt…

Positive Feedback

Textbook

As we’ve seen, negative feedback is an incredibly useful…

Solving Simultaneous Equations: The Substitution Method and the Addition Method

Textbook

What are Simultaneous Equations and Systems of Equations? The terms…

From Electric to Electronic

Textbook

Introduction This third volume of the book series Lessons In Electric…

The Cascode Amplifier

Textbook

While the C-B (common-base) amplifier is known for wider bandwidth…

The R/2nR DAC: Binary-Weighted-Input Digital-to-Analog Converter

Textbook

What Is a R/2nR DAC Circuit? The R/2nR DAC circuit, otherwise known as…

Nonlinear OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Metric Prefix Conversions

Textbook

To express a quantity in a different metric prefix from how it was…

Divided Feedback

Textbook

If we add a voltage divider to the negative feedback wiring so that…

Building Simple Resistor Circuits

Textbook

In the course of learning about electricity, you will want to…

Delta-Sigma ADC

Textbook

One of the more advanced ADC technologies is the so-called…

Inductor Transient Response

Textbook

Inductors have the exact opposite characteristics of capacitors.…

Class C BJT Amplifiers

Worksheets - Amplifiers

A common class of operation used in radio-frequency (RF) amplifier…

Switch Types

Textbook

Though it may seem strange to cover the elementary topic of electrical…

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

Textbook

By introducing electrical reactance into the feedback loops of an…

True, Reactive, and Apparent Power

Textbook

Reactive Power We know that reactive loads such as inductors and…

Clamper Circuits

Textbook

The circuits in the figure below are known as clampers or DC…

Attenuators

Textbook

What is Attenuators? Attenuators are passive devices. It is…

Design Project: DC Voltage Regulator

Worksheets - Amplifiers

It may seem difficult to even start on a project such as this, with no…

Inductive Reactance

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Noninverting Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model 1458 or 353…

Embedded Microstrip Impedance Calculator

Tools

This calculator helps you compute the characteristic impedance of an embedded microstrip.

Conversion From Decimal Numeration

Textbook

Because octal and hexadecimal numeration systems have bases that are…

Hysteresis

Textbook

Thyristors are a class of semiconductor components exhibiting…

Shock Current Path

Textbook

As we’ve already learned, electricity requires a complete path…

Transformer—Power Supply

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Power transformer, 120VAC step-down to 12VAC,…

Unit Conversion Calculator

Tools

Convert to and from different units of length, weight, power, temperature and torque

Look-up Tables

Textbook

Having learned about digital memory devices in the last chapter, we…

Historical, Nonmechanical Memory Technologies

Textbook

Perhaps the most ingenious technique was that of the delay line. A…

Diode Switching Circuits

Textbook

Diodes can perform switching and digital logic operations. Forward and…

Design Project: Intercom System

Worksheets - Amplifiers

Design a passive circuit that will create a "split” ( V/-V) power…

Encoders and Decoders

Worksheets - Amplifiers

What does it mean, in general terms, to encode something? Conversely,…

Rectifier/Filter Circuit

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply Bridge rectifier pack…

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

Textbook

What is Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)? The principle known as…

Convert MCD to Lumens

Tools

This calculator is useful for calculating the luminous flux for LEDs where the angle is known.

Polarity of voltage drops

Textbook

When using conventional current flow, we can trace the direction of…

Design Project: Event Counter

Worksheets - Amplifiers

If your event sensing switch is mechanical in nature, you will likely…

Simple AC Circuit Calculations

Textbook

Over the course of the next few chapters, you will learn that AC…

Electrical Transients

Textbook

This chapter explores the response of capacitors and inductors to…