Latest Lighting Education

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Rectifier Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

AC Motor Theory

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Electromechanical watt-hour meters use an aluminum disk that is spun…

Switches

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What is the purpose of the switch shown in this schematic diagram?

DC Lab - Parallel Batteries

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will connect batteries in parallel to power a light and learn the relationship between the individual battery currents and the total system current.

Design Project: LED Stroboscope

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A technician uses a stroboscope to “freeze” the rotation of a…

Series-Parallel DC Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Si Lab - Light Sensor (LED Photodetector)

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, use an LED as a light-sensitive photodetector and learn how to use a bipolar transistor in a common-emitter amplifier configuration.

Parallel Resistor Calculator

Tools

Calculate the equivalent resistance of up to six resistors in parallel with ease while learning how to calculate resistance in parallel and the parallel resistance formula.

Simple Circuits

Worksheets - Lighting

Shown here is the schematic symbol for a resistor: What is the purpose…

555 Lab - Blue LED Flasher With Voltage Doubler

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build a blue LED flasher using a 555 timer and learn the basic theory of a voltage doubler using a transistor switch and a capacitor.

Thyristors

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Digital Display Circuits

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What is the purpose of a seven-segment decoder circuit? What is a…

Special-purpose Diodes

Textbook

Schottky diodes Schottky diodes are constructed of a metal-to-N…

Current Divider Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

555 Lab - LED Flasher with Inductive Flyback

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build a multiple LED flasher and learn how to use inductive flyback to generate a voltage pulse that is greater than the supply voltage.

555 Lab - Advanced Red LED Flasher

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build a red LED flasher with a transistor drive to control the current and learn how to use transistors to provide current gain and how to limit LED current.

Series LED Resistor Calculator

Tools

This series LED resistance calculator is perfect for when you have a single LED or a number of the same color of LEDs in series and need to know which resistor you should use.

AC phase

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If we were to express the series-connected DC voltages as phasors…

Circuits and the Speed of Light

Textbook

Suppose we had a simple one-battery, one-lamp circuit controlled by a…

555 Lab - Red LED Flasher

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build a red LED flasher and learn a useful application of the versatile 555 timer IC.

Superconductivity

Textbook

Conductors lose all of their electrical resistance when cooled to…

Microprocessors

Textbook

Early computer science pioneers such as Alan Turing and John Von…

Analog and Digital Signals

Textbook

Instrumentation is a field of study and work centering on measurement…

Other Specialized Motors

Textbook

Shaded Pole Induction Motor An easy way to provide starting torque to…

Special Transformers and Applications

Textbook

Impedance Matching Because transformers can step voltage and current…

Power Measurement

Textbook

Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than…

AC Lab - Noise Cancellation

Textbook

In this hands-on AC electronics experiment, you will use an AC voltage source connected to speakers to learn about sound waves and the foundational principle used in noise cancelling headphones.

DC Branch Current Analysis

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Other Waveshapes

Textbook

As strange as it may seem, any repeating, non-sinusoidal waveform is…

Logic Signal Voltage Levels

Textbook

Input Voltages for Logic Gates Logic gate circuits are designed to…

Karnaugh Mapping

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Identify each of these logic gates by name, and complete their…

Measurement Circuits

Textbook

Figure below shows a photodiode amplifier for measuring low levels of…

The Common-source Amplifier (IGFET)

Textbook

Analog Lab - 555 Oscillator (Astable Multivibrator)

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build an oscillator using a 555 timer and learn the theory of operation of the 555 timer when configured as an astable multivibrator.

AC Lab - Introduction

Textbook

In this series of hands-on electronics experiments, build alternating current (AC) circuits and learn about basic electrical engineering circuit concepts, including transformers, motors, phase shifts, signal coupling, and noise cancellation.

Vol III. Credits

Textbook

All entries arranged in alphabetical order of surname. Major…

Derivatives of Power Functions of e

Textbook

Example Derivatives of e Proportionality Constant When we say that a…

Inductor Commutating Circuits

Textbook

A popular use of diodes is for the mitigation of inductive…

Enhancement-type IGFETs

Textbook

Tracking ADC

Textbook

A third variation on the counter-DAC-based converter theme is, in my…

Digital Lab - S-R Latch With Enable Input using NAND Gates

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build an S-R latch with an enabled input using four NAND gates and learn more about digital circuit functionality.

What is Alternating Current (AC)?

Textbook

Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as…

Voltage Divider Circuits

Textbook

Let’s analyze a simple series circuit and determine the voltage…

Minterm vs Maxterm Solution

Textbook

So far we have been finding Sum-Of-Product (SOP) solutions to logic…

Binary Addition

Textbook

The Rules of Binary Addition Adding binary numbers is a very simple…

Contributors (8)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Superconductivity

Textbook

Conductors lose all of their electrical resistance when cooled to…

Practical Considerations - Transformers

Textbook

Power Capacity As has already been observed, transformers must be well…

Permanent Magnets

Textbook

Centuries ago, it was discovered that certain types of mineral rock…

Wiring Color Codes Infographic

Textbook

Wiring Color Codes Infographic. Released under the Creative Commons…

High-Reliability Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze relay…

Delta and Wye 3-Phase Circuits

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Label where each of the following electrical quantities would be found…

Using Multiple Combinational Circuits

Textbook

As an example of using several circuits together, we are going to make…

Capacitor Impedance Calculator

Tools

This tool calculates a capacitor's reactance for a given capacitance value and signal frequency.

Analog Lab - 555 Oscillator (Astable Multivibrator)

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, build an oscillator using a 555 timer and learn the theory of operation of the 555 timer when configured as an astable multivibrator.

Wavelength (TEM) Calculator

Tools

This calculator determines the wavelength of a signal given the frequency and dielectric constant.

Resonant Filters

Textbook

So far, the filter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed…

Peak to Peak Voltage Calculator (VP-P)

Tools

This calculator shows the peak-to-peak voltage (VP-P) value from the peak voltage, RMS voltage, or average voltage.

Conductors and Insulators

Worksheets - Lighting

Given two lengths of metal wire, which one will have the least…

Nonlinear OpAmp Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…