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Special-purpose Diodes

Textbook

Schottky diodes Schottky diodes are constructed of a metal-to-N…

Physical Effects of Electricity

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Certain substances are known to physically deform (shorten or…

Static Electricity

Textbook

It was discovered centuries ago that certain types of materials would…

Variable Inductor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Paper tube, from a toilet-paper roll Bar of iron…

Design Project: Voltmeter

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The most important component of your voltmeter will be the…

Superposition Theorem

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Other Waveshapes

Textbook

As strange as it may seem, any repeating, non-sinusoidal waveform is…

Mesh Current Method (Loop Current Method)

Textbook

This page provides a step-by-step introduction to using the mesh…

Introduction to Digital Integrated Circuits

Textbook

Digital circuits are circuits dealing with signals restricted to the…

Class B BJT Amplifiers

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Specific Resistance of Conductors

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Given two lengths of metal wire, which one will have the least…

Basic Electricity Worksheet

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What is the purpose of the switch shown in this schematic diagram?

Capacitor Charge and Time Constant Calculator

Tools

This calculator computes for the capacitor charge time and energy, given the supply voltage and the added series resistance.

What is Alternating Current (AC)?

Textbook

Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as…

Passive Integrator and Differentiator Circuits

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∫f(x) dx Calculus alert! Calculus is a branch of mathematics that…

Low-pass Filters

Textbook

By definition, a low-pass filter is a circuit offering easy passage to…

Performance-Based Assessments for DC Circuit Competencies

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(Template)

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors

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What is an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), and what…

Transformer—Power Supply

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Power transformer, 120VAC step-down to 12VAC,…

Gas Discharge Tubes

Textbook

If you’ve ever witnessed a lightning storm, you’ve seen…

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

Textbook

What is Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)? The principle known as…

Measurement Circuits

Textbook

Figure below shows a photodiode amplifier for measuring low levels of…

Conversion From Decimal Numeration

Textbook

Because octal and hexadecimal numeration systems have bases that are…

Full-wave Bridge Rectifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply (6 volt output) Four…

Clipper and Clamper Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Fail-safe Design

Textbook

Logic circuits, whether comprised of electromechanical relays or…

Contributors (14)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

A 50-Ohm Cable?

Textbook

Early in my explorations of electricity, I came across a length of…

Mutual Inductors

Textbook

Mutual inductors are inductors that capitalize the effect of mutual…

Brushless DC Motor

Textbook

Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors…

Wire-by-Number project kit introduction

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Wire-by-Number project: simple voltage divider Description: Build a…

Harmonic Phase Sequences

Textbook

In the last section, we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its…

IC Fabrication and Packaging

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What does it mean if an integrated circuit comes in DIP form? What…

Design Project: DC Voltage Regulator

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It may seem difficult to even start on a project such as this, with no…

AC Instrumentation Transducers

Textbook

Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities…

Calculating Power Factor

Textbook

As was mentioned before, the angle of this “power…

Antenna Downtilt and Coverage Calculator

Tools

This calculator will determine the correct antenna downtilt angle given the heights of the antennas and distance between them.

Wiring Color Codes

Textbook

Wiring for AC and DC power distribution branch circuits are color…

Waveform Analysis

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS IBM-compatible personal computer with sound card,…

Magnetic Units of Measurement

Textbook

If the burden of two systems of measurement for common quantities…

The TRIAC

Textbook

SCRs are unidirectional (one-way) current devices, making them useful…

What is a Series-Parallel Circuit?

Textbook

With simple series circuits, all components are connected end-to-end…

Circuit Components

Textbook

Remember that this tutorial is not exhaustive by any means, and that…

Hyperbolic Functions

Textbook

Note: all angles (x) must be expressed in units of radians for these…

AC Motor Control Circuits

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Perhaps the most challenging aspect of interpreting ladder diagrams,…

Basic identities

Textbook

Additive Identity a + 0 = a Multiplicative Identity 1a = a…

Decimal versus Binary Numeration

Textbook

Let’s count from zero to twenty using four different kinds of…

Trigonometry for AC Circuits

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Identify which trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, or tangent) are…

Asynchronous Flip-Flop Inputs

Textbook

The normal data inputs to a flip flop (D, S and R, or J and K) are…

Networks and Busses

Textbook

The wires between the tank and the monitoring location is  called…

Basic AC-DC Power Supplies

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Soldering

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Both soldering irons and soldering guns are tools used in the process…

The 555 IC

Textbook

The 555 integrated circuit is the most popular chip ever manufactured.…

Voltage Comparator

Textbook

Parts and Materials Operational amplifier, model 1458 or 353…

More on Spectrum Analysis

Textbook

Computerized Fourier analysis, particularly in the form of the FFT…

Special Transformers and Applications

Textbook

Impedance Matching Because transformers can step voltage and current…

Skin Depth Calculator

Tools

A tool designed to calculate skin depth based on the conductive material being used and the frequency of the signal.

Current Signal Systems

Textbook

Current Source It is possible through the use of electronic amplifiers…

Phasing

Textbook

Since transformers are essentially AC devices, we need to be aware of…

Wheatstone Bridge Calculator

Tools

This calculator helps determine the resistance of a variable resistor within a Wheatstone bridge circuit or the differential voltage created across the bridge terminals.