Three-phase Transformer Circuits
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 10 - Polyphase AC Circuits
Since three-phase is used so often for power distribution systems, it makes sense that we would need three-phase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. This is only partially true, as regular single-phase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two three-phase systems in a variety of configurations, eliminating the requirement for a special three-phase transformer. However, special three-phase transformers are built for those tasks
Basic Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
Worksheets - Basic Electricity
When lightning strikes, nearby magnetic compass needles may be seen to jerk in response to the electrical discharge. No compass needle deflection results during the accumulation of electrostatic charge preceding the lightning bolt, but only when the bolt actually strikes. What does this phenomenon indicate about voltage, current, and magnetism?
Friis Transmission Calculator
This calculator computes the power received by an antenna using Friis formula
Band Theory of Solids
Textbook - Vol. III - Semiconductors - Chapter 2 - Solid-state Device Theory
Quantum physics describes the states of electrons in an atom according to the four-fold scheme of quantum numbers. The quantum numbers describe the allowable states electrons may assume in an atom. To use the analogy of an amphitheater, quantum numbers describe how many rows and seats are available. Individual electrons may be described by the combination of quantum numbers, like a spectator in an amphitheater assigned to a particular row
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 8 - Filters
So far, the filter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed either capacitors or inductors, but never both at the same time. We should know by now that combinations of L and C will tend to resonate, and this property can be exploited in designing band-pass and band-stop filter circuits. Series LC circuits give minimum impedance at resonance, while parallel LC (“tank”) circuits give maximum impedance at their resonant frequency.
Magnetic Units of Measurement
Textbook - Vol. I - Direct Current (DC) - Chapter 14 - Magnetism and Electromagnetism
If the burden of two systems of measurement for common quantities (English vs. metric) throws your mind into confusion, this is not the place for you! Due to an early lack of standardization in the science of magnetism, we have been plagued with no less than three complete systems of measurement for magnetic quantities. First, we need to become acquainted with the various quantities associated with magnetism. There are quite
Textbook - Vol. III - Semiconductors - Chapter 3 - Diodes and Rectifiers
What is Rectification? Now we come to the most popular application of the diode: rectification. Simply defined, rectification is the conversion of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). This involves a device that only allows one-way flow of electrons. As we have seen, this is exactly what a semiconductor diode does. The simplest kind of rectifier circuit is the half-wave rectifier. It only allows one half of an AC
Textbook - Vol. III - Semiconductors - Chapter 9 - Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits
Volume I chapter 1.1 discusses static electricity, and how it is created. This has a lot more significance than might be first assumed, as control of static electricity plays a large part in modern electronics and other professions. An ElectroStatic Discharge event is when a static charge is bled off in an uncontrolled fashion and will be referred to as ESD hereafter. ESD comes in many forms, it can be as
Inductance, Reactance, and Admittance Calculator
This calculator gives the reactance and admittance of an inductor or the inductance given the reactance of an inductor
Susceptance and Admittance
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 5 - Reactance And Impedance -- R, L, And C
What is Conductance? In the study of DC circuits, the student of electricity comes across a term meaning the opposite of resistance: conductance. It is a useful term when exploring the mathematical formula for parallel resistances: Rparallel = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . . 1/Rn). Unlike resistance, which diminishes as more parallel components are included in the circuit, conductance simply adds. Mathematically, conductance is the reciprocal of resistance, and each 1/R term in the “parallel
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 14 - Transmission Lines
Standing waves at the resonant frequency points of an open- or short-circuited transmission line produce unusual effects. When the signal frequency is such that exactly 1/2 wave or some multiple thereof matches the line’s length, the source “sees” the load impedance as it is. The following pair of illustrations shows an open-circuited line operating at 1/2 (Figure below) and 1 wavelength (Figure below) frequencies: Source sees open, same as end of half
Magnetic Fields and Inductance
Textbook - Vol. I - Direct Current (DC) - Chapter 15 - Inductors
Whenever electrons flow through a conductor, a magnetic field will develop around that conductor. This effect is called electromagnetism. Magnetic fields effect the alignment of electrons in an atom, and can cause physical force to develop between atoms across space just as with electric fields developing force between electrically charged particles. Like electric fields, magnetic fields can occupy completely empty space, and affect matter at a distance. Field Force and
Microstrip Inductance Calculator
This calculator computes the inductance of a microstrip etched on a PCB.
Impedance Matching With Transformers
Worksheets - AC Electric Circuits
Suppose you were to take a 3 kW electric heater rated for 240 VAC and connect it to a 120 VAC power source. How much power would it dissipate when connected to a voltage source equal to half its rating?
Noise Figure and Noise Temperature Calculator
This calculator computes the noise figure and noise temperature in a system
Square Wave Signals
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 7 - Mixed-Frequency AC Signals
It has been found that any repeating, non-sinusoidal waveform can be equated to a combination of DC voltage, sine waves, and/or cosine waves (sine waves with a 90 degree phase shift) at various amplitudes and frequencies. This is true no matter how strange or convoluted the waveform in question may be. So long as it repeats itself regularly over time, it is reducible to this series of sinusoidal waves. In
Antenna Downtilt and Coverage Calculator
This calculator will determine the correct antenna downtilt angle given the heights of the antennas and distance between them.
Textbook - Vol. IV - Digital - Chapter 14 - Digital Communication
If we want to connect two digital devices with a network, we would have a kind of network known as “point-to-point:” For the sake of simplicity, the network wiring is symbolized as a single line between the two devices. In actuality, it may be a twisted pair of wires, a coaxial cable, an optical fiber, or even a seven-conductor BogusBus. Right now, we’re merely focusing on the “shape” of
Electrical Noise and Interference
Worksheets - AC Electric Circuits
Define what noise means, in the electrical sense of the word. How does electrical noise compare and contrast with audible noise?