Band Theory of Solids
Textbook - Vol. III - Semiconductors - Chapter 2 - Solid-state Device Theory
Quantum physics describes the states of electrons in an atom according to the four-fold scheme of quantum numbers. The quantum numbers describe the allowable states electrons may assume in an atom. To use the analogy of an amphitheater, quantum numbers describe how many rows and seats are available. Individual electrons may be described by the combination of quantum numbers, like a spectator in an amphitheater assigned to a particular row
Bridged-Tee Attenuator Calculator
This calculator helps you determine the values of the resistors R1 and R2 to be used for a bridged-tee attenuator.
Skin Depth Calculator
A tool designed to calculate skin depth based on the conductive material being used and the frequency of the signal.
Textbook - Vol. I - Direct Current (DC) - Chapter 14 - Magnetism and Electromagnetism
While Oersted’s surprising discovery of electromagnetism paved the way for more practical applications of electricity, it was Michael Faraday who gave us the key to the practical generation of electricity: electromagnetic induction. Faraday discovered that a voltage would be generated across a length of wire if that wire was exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field flux of changing intensity. An easy way to create a magnetic field of changing
Textbook - Vol. III - Semiconductors - Chapter 3 - Diodes and Rectifiers
Now we come to the most popular application of the diode: rectification. Simply defined, rectification is the conversion of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). This involves a device that only allows one-way flow of electrons. As we have seen, this is exactly what a semiconductor diode does. The simplest kind of rectifier circuit is the half-wave rectifier. It only allows one half of an AC waveform to pass
Magnetism and Electromagnetism
Okay, we're in Section 2.4. We're going to be introducing Magnetism and Electromagnetism in this particular section. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields play important roles and are fundamental to electronic and electromechanical systems. Motors, generators, speakers, microphones, computer storage devices like hard drives and many other devise are based upon magnetic, electromagnetic principles. Okay, magnetic fields. Here we have a picture of one. Surrounding all magnetic objects is an invisible but measurable
N-Way Power Divider Calculator
This calculator determines the total path loss provided by an RF n-way power splitter.
What is Network Analysis?
Textbook - Vol. I - Direct Current (DC) - Chapter 10 - DC Network Analysis
Generally speaking, network analysis is any structured technique used to mathematically analyze a circuit (a “network” of interconnected components). Quite often the technician or engineer will encounter circuits containing multiple sources of power or component configurations which defy simplification by series/parallel analysis techniques. In those cases, he or she will be forced to use other means. This chapter presents a few techniques useful in analyzing such complex circuits. To
Finite State Machines
Textbook - Vol. IV - Digital - Chapter 11 - Sequential Circuits
Up to now, every circuit that was presented was a combinatorial circuit. That means that its output is dependent only by its current inputs. Previous inputs for that type of circuits have no effect on the output. However, there are many applications where there is a need for our circuits to have “memory”; to remember previous inputs and calculate their outputs according to them. A circuit whose output depends not
A helpful tool for computing the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) of an antenna
Inductance, Reactance, and Admittance Calculator
This calculator gives the reactance and admittance of an inductor or the inductance given the reactance of an inductor
Absolute dB scales
Textbook - Vol. III - Semiconductors - Chapter 1 - Amplifiers and Active Devices
It is also possible to use the decibel as a unit of absolute power, in addition to using it as an expression of power gain or loss. A common example of this is the use of decibels as a measurement of sound pressure intensity. In cases like these, the measurement is made in reference to some standardized power level defined as 0 dB. For measurements of sound pressure, 0 dB is loosely
Link Budget Calculator
This tool is designed to calculate the power at the receiver using link budget analysis.
Electrical Noise and Interference
Worksheets - AC Electric Circuits
Define what noise means, in the electrical sense of the word. How does electrical noise compare and contrast with audible noise?
More on Spectrum Analysis
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 7 - Mixed-Frequency AC Signals
Computerized Fourier analysis, particularly in the form of the FFT algorithm, is a powerful tool for furthering our understanding of waveforms and their related spectral components. This same mathematical routine programmed into the SPICE simulator as the .fourier option is also programmed into a variety of electronic test instruments to perform real-time Fourier analysis on measured signals. This section is devoted to the use of such tools and the analysis
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 14 - Transmission Lines
A waveguide is a special form of transmission line consisting of a hollow, metal tube. The tube wall provides distributed inductance, while the empty space between the tube walls provide distributed capacitance: Figure below Wave guides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables. Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency, where the wavelength approaches the cross-sectional dimensions of the waveguide. Below such frequencies, waveguides are
Free Space Path Loss Calculator
This calculator computes for the free space path loss between transmit and receive antennas.
Microstrip Wavelength Calculator
A tool designed to calculate the guided wavelength inside a microstrip.
Review of R, X, and Z
Textbook - Vol. II - Alternating Current (AC) - Chapter 5 - Reactance And Impedance -- R, L, And C
Before we begin to explore the effects of resistors, inductors, and capacitors connected together in the same AC circuits, let’s briefly review some basic terms and facts. Resistance is essentially friction against the motion of electrons. It is present in all conductors to some extent (except superconductors!), most notably in resistors. When alternating current goes through a resistance, a voltage drop is produced that is in-phase with the current.