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Bipolar Transistor Biasing Circuits

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AC Network Analysis

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Design Project: Audio Media-Based Signal Generator

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Identify some different ways you can create the sine-wave audio tracks…

Miscellaneous Diode Applications

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555 Ramp Generator

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6 volt batteries One capacitor, 470 µF…

Multimeters

Textbook

Seeing as how a common meter movement can be made to function as a…

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

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The circuit shown here is a four-bit analog-to-digital converter…

AC Waveforms

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Radio waves are comprised of oscillating electric and magnetic fields,…

Impedance

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Multi-Stage Transistor Amplifiers

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Rectifier Circuits

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Design Project: Signal Generator

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Explain the principle of operation for the particular integrated…

Time Constant Circuits

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Generally speaking, how many “time constants” worth of time does…

Specific Troubleshooting Techniques

Textbook

After applying some of the general troubleshooting tips to narrow the…

Sensitive Audio Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio…

Open-Loop OpAmp Circuits

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Determine what the magnitude and polarity of the voltmeter’s…

Potentiometers

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Clipper and Clamper Circuits

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TTL Logic Gates

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Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

Setting Up a Home Lab

Textbook

In order to build the circuits described in this volume, you will need…

Multiplexers and Demultiplexers

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TTL Logic Gates

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Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

Sensitive Audio Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio…

Analysis Options

Textbook

AC ANALYSIS: General form: .ac [curve] [points] [start] [final]…

DC Motor Theory

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If the ends of a wire loop are attached to two half-circular metal…

Kelvin (4-wire) Resistance Measurement

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the resistance of some component located…

Basic Logic Gate Troubleshooting

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Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

Bipolar Junction Transistors as Switches

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Solid-state switching circuits usually keep their constituent…

High Voltage Ohmmeters

Textbook

Most ohmmeters of the design shown in the previous section utilize a…

AC Waveforms

Textbook

When an alternator produces AC voltage, the voltage switches polarity…

4-wire Resistance Measurement

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment…

Resistors

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Shown here is the schematic symbol for a resistor: What is the purpose…

pH Measurement

Textbook

A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes…

Design Project: Voltmeter

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The most important component of your voltmeter will be the…

Peak, Average, and RMS Measurements

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How is it possible to assign a fixed value of voltage or current (such…

More on Spectrum Analysis

Textbook

Computerized Fourier analysis, particularly in the form of the FFT…

Potentiometers

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Power Measurement

Textbook

Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than…

How to Build a Current Mirror Circuit

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS   Two NPN transistors—models 2N2222 or…

Creating Custom Calibration Resistances

Textbook

Often in the course of designing and building electrical meter…

The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) as a Switch

Textbook

Bipolar junction transistors (Also known as BJTs) can be used as an…

Capacitor Types

Textbook

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that…

Half-wave Rectifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply (6-volt output) 6-volt…

Design Project: Telegraph System

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What voltage will you choose to use for each of the station batteries?

Counter Modulus

Textbook

Incomplete

What is Alternating Current (AC)?

Textbook

Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as…

Circuit Effects

Textbook

The principle of non-sinusoidal, repeating waveforms being equivalent…

Optothyristors

Textbook

Like bipolar transistors, SCRs and TRIACs are also manufactured as…

Fundamentals of SPICE programming

Textbook

Programming a circuit simulation with SPICE is much like programming…

NAND Gate S-R Enabled Latch

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS 4011 quad NAND gate (Radio Shack catalog #…

Building Series-Parallel Resistor Circuits

Textbook

Once again, when building battery/resistor circuits, the student or…

Electromagnetism

Textbook

The discovery of the relationship between magnetism and electricity…

Microprocessors

Textbook

Early computer science pioneers such as Alan Turing and John Von…

Time Constant Calculations

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Basic AC-DC Power Supplies

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Octal and Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion

Textbook

Although the prime intent of octal and hexadecimal numeration systems…

Atomic Structure

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Shown here is a simplified representation of an atom: the smallest…

A 50-Ohm Cable?

Textbook

Early in my explorations of electricity, I came across a length of…

R, L and C Summary

Textbook

With the notable exception of calculations for power (P), all AC…

Hand Calculator Use

Textbook

To enter numbers in scientific notation into a hand calculator, there…