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BJT Quirks

Textbook

An ideal transistor would show 0% distortion in amplifying a signal.…

Oscillator Circuits

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Wire-by-Number project kit introduction

Worksheets - Audio

Wire-by-Number project: simple voltage divider Description: Build a…

Decibel Calculator

Tools

This calculator will convert voltage or power gains into decibels. Enter one of the three values and the calculator will output the other two.

Tubes versus Semiconductors

Textbook

Devoting a whole chapter in a modern electronics text to the design…

Battery Life Calculator

Tools

This calculator provides three options—basic, intermediate, and advanced—for determining expected battery life for microcontroller, Internet of Things (IoT), and edge processing systems with up to four different operating modes.

AC Lab - Frequency Analysis

Textbook

In this hands-on AC electronics experiment, use the frequency spectrum display from an oscilloscope program to observe waveforms from a musical keyboard and learn about spectral analysis.

The Common-emitter Amplifier

Textbook

At the beginning of this chapter, it illustrates how transistors could…

Series and Parallel AC Circuits

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

DC Lab - Sensitive Voltage Detector With Audio Output

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will construct a voltage detector with adjustable sensitivity and audio output, and you will learn a method for detecting small electrical signals without an oscilloscope.

Practical Considerations - Transformers

Textbook

Power Capacity As has already been observed, transformers must be well…

Multi-Stage Transistor Amplifiers

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

The “Operational” Amplifier

Textbook

Long before the advent of digital electronic technology, computers…

Resonance

Worksheets - Audio

The Q factor of a series inductive circuit is given by the following…

Class A BJT Amplifiers

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Clipper and Clamper Circuits

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Design Project: Sensitive Microphone Amplifier

Worksheets - Audio

Identify which direction each potentiometer wiper must move in this…

Decibel Measurements

Worksheets - Audio

During the early development of telephone technology, a unit was…

Biasing Techniques (BJT)

Textbook

In the common-emitter section of this chapter, we saw a SPICE analysis…

AC Network Analysis

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Stepper Motors

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

AC Motor Theory

Worksheets - Audio

Electromechanical watt-hour meters use an aluminum disk that is spun…

Special Diodes

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

555 Lab - Introduction to the 555 Timer IC

Textbook

In this collection of hands-on electronics experiments, build and test mixed-signal analog and digital circuits using the versatile 555 timer IC. These projects will teach you about RC time constants, duty cycle, transistor current drive, LEDs, voltage doublers, and more.

Bit Grouping

Textbook

The singular reason for learning and using the binary numeration…

Building a Differential Amplifier

Textbook

Differential Op-Amp Circuits An op-amp with no feedback is already a…

Divided Feedback

Textbook

If we add a voltage divider to the negative feedback wiring so that…

Thermocouples

Textbook

Seebeck Effect An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of…

Si Lab - Full-wave Bridge Rectifier

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a full-wave bridge rectifier using silicon diodes and learn some of this circuit's advantages and disadvantages.

Analog Lab - Introduction

Textbook

In this series of hands-on electronics experiments, build analog circuits, including amplifiers, comparators, oscillators, and more. Following the step-by-step instructions will help you understand and appreciate analog systems.

Switches, Hand Actuated

Textbook

A switch is an electrical component that can “make” or…

Single-phase Induction Motors

Textbook

A three-phase motor may be run from a single-phase power source.…

Table (landscape view)

Textbook

Periodic table of chemical elements.

The Command-line Interface

Textbook

If you’ve used DOS or UNIX operating systems before in a…

Circuit Simplification Examples

Textbook

Let’s begin with a semiconductor gate circuit in need of…

Harmonic Phase Sequences

Textbook

In the last section, we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its…

Safe Meter Usage

Textbook

Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most…

Series Resistor-Capacitor Circuits

Textbook

In the last section, we learned what would happen in simple…

SPICE Quirks

Textbook

“Garbage in, garbage out.” —Anonymous   SPICE…

Capacitive Reactance

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

AC Bridge Circuits

Textbook

As we saw with DC measurement circuits, the circuit configuration…

Si Lab - BJT Common-collector Voltage Follower

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a voltage follower amplifier using a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in common-collector configuration and learn about circuit ground and impedance transformations.

Waveguide Calculator (Rectangular)

Tools

This tool calculates the cutoff frequency of a rectangular waveguide

Stripline Trace Width Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the trace width of a stripline based on the maximum current rating

Resonance

Worksheets - Audio

The Q factor of a series inductive circuit is given by the following…

Digital Codes

Worksheets - Audio

Counting practice: count from zero to thirty-one in binary, octal, and…

Shift Registers

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Current Divider Circuits

Worksheets - Audio

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Scientific Notation in SPICE

Textbook

The SPICE circuit simulation computer program uses scientific notation…

Intro Lab - How to Use an Ammeter to Measure Current

Textbook

In this hands-on introduction to electronics, you will experiment with a multimeter and learn how to measure current using the ammeter function.

Meter Check of a Transistor (BJT)

Textbook

Bipolar transistors are constructed of a three-layer semiconductor…

Boolean Relationships on Venn Diagrams

Textbook

The fourth example has A partially overlapping B. Though, we will…

Digital Logic Functions

Textbook

We can construct a simple logic functions for our hypothetical lamp…

Safe Practices

Textbook

If at all possible, shut off the power to a circuit before performing…

Pi Attenuator Calculator

Tools

This calculator helps you determine the values of the resistors R1 and R2 to be used for a Pi Attenuator.

SPICE Models

Textbook

The SPICE circuit simulation program provides for modeling diodes in…

Introduction to Karnaugh Mapping

Textbook

Why learn about Karnaugh maps? The Karnaugh map, like Boolean…

Overcurrent Protection

Worksheets - Audio

What hazards might be posed by a circuit with excessive current going…

Electromechanical Relay Logic

Worksheets - Audio

In ladder logic symbolism, an electromechanical relay coil is shown as…

Electrical Energy Calculator

Tools

This calculator will determine the instantaneous energy, sustained energy, and power consumed by an electrical system given two of the three electrical parameters (voltage, current, or resistance) and the time.