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2-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

In partnership with Texas Instruments

2-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

3-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

In partnership with Texas Instruments

3-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

Phase-Locked Loops

Worksheets - Analog

This is a schematic for a simple VCO: The oscillator is of the RC…

The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) as a Switch

Textbook

Bipolar junction transistors (Also known as BJTs) can be used as an…

The Pentode

Textbook

Another strategy for addressing the problem of secondary electrons…

Positive Feedback

Textbook

As we’ve seen, negative feedback is an incredibly useful…

Simple Series Resonance

Textbook

A similar effect happens in series inductive/capacitive circuits. When…

Negative Feedback OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

OpAmp Oscillator Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Clamper Circuits

Textbook

The circuits in the figure below are known as clampers or DC…

Building Simple Resistor Circuits

Textbook

In the course of learning about electricity, you will want to…

What Are Electric Circuits?

Textbook

You might have been wondering how charges can continuously flow in a…

Vectors and AC Waveforms

Textbook

OK, so how exactly can we represent AC quantities of voltage or…

Impedance

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Calculating Electric Power

Textbook

Learn the Power Formula We’ve seen the formula for determining…

Mesh Current Method and Analysis

Textbook

The Mesh-Current Method, also known as the Loop Current Method, is…

The R/2nR DAC: Binary-Weighted-Input Digital-to-Analog Converter

Textbook

What Is a R/2nR DAC Circuit? The R/2nR DAC circuit, otherwise known as…

AC Network Analysis

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Resonance in Series-Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In simple reactive circuits with little or no resistance, the effects…

The R/2R DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)

Textbook

The R/2R DAC circuit is an alternative to the binary-weighted-input…

Sensitive Audio Detector

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio…

Wiring Color Codes

Textbook

Wiring for AC and DC power distribution branch circuits are color…

What is a Filter?

Textbook

It is sometimes desirable to have circuits capable of selectively…

Pi-Match Impedance Matching Calculator

Tools

This calculator is designed to compute the parameters required to design a Pi-Match Impedance Circuit

Switches, Process Actuated

Textbook

It is very important to keep in mind that the “normal”…

Special Diodes

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Stepper Motor Calculator

Tools

A tool designed to calculate the maximum speed, minimum time per step and maximum power of a stepper motor

Introduction to Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

Textbook

The invention of the bipolar transistor in 1948 ushered in a…

Kelvin (4-wire) Resistance Measurement

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the resistance of some component located…

Likely Failures in Unproven Systems

Textbook

“All men are liable to error;” —John Locke Whereas…

Millman’s Theorem

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Contact “Bounce”

Textbook

When a switch is actuated and contacts touch one another under the…

Successive Approximation ADC

Textbook

One method of addressing the digital ramp ADC’s shortcomings is…

Voltage Comparator

Textbook

Parts and Materials Operational amplifier, model 1458 or 353…

Transistors, Insulated-gate Field-effect (IGFET or MOSFET)

Textbook

We have the symbols for depletion mode and enhancement mode MOSFETs -…

Design Project: DC Voltage Regulator

Worksheets - Analog

It may seem difficult to even start on a project such as this, with no…

Negative Feedback

Textbook

If we connect the output of an op-amp to its inverting input and apply…

Numbers and Symbols

Textbook

The expression of numerical quantities is something we tend to take…

Batteries

Worksheets - Analog

If I wanted to build a battery-powered electric drill, would it be…

Design Project: AC-DC Power Supply

Worksheets - Analog

Safety is very important when designing and/or building a device…

Design Project: Voltmeter

Worksheets - Analog

The most important component of your voltmeter will be the…

High-impedance Voltmeter

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Operational amplifier, model TL082 recommended…

SPICE Quirks

Textbook

“Garbage in, garbage out.” —Anonymous SPICE is a…

Ohm’s Law

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Calculator (or pencil and paper for doing…

Computational Circuits

Textbook

When someone mentions the word “computer,” a digital…

N-Way Power Divider Calculator

Tools

This calculator determines the total path loss provided by an RF n-way power splitter.

Series Circuit Rules

Textbook

Current Components in a series circuit share the same current: Itotal…

Digital Signals and Gates

Textbook

While the binary numeration system is an interesting mathematical…

Multimeters

Textbook

Seeing as how a common meter movement can be made to function as a…

Millman’s Theorem

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Decibels

Textbook

The Bel is Used to Represent Gain In its simplest form, an…

Network Protocols

Textbook

Aside from the issues of the physical network (signal types and…

Circuit Simplification Examples

Textbook

Let’s begin with a semiconductor gate circuit in need of…

Divided Feedback

Textbook

If we add a voltage divider to the negative feedback wiring so that…

Beam Power Tubes

Textbook

In the beam power tube, the basic four-element structure of the…

Stripline Max Current Calculator

Tools

A calculator designed to calculate the maximum current that a stripline can handle

What is Alternating Current (AC)?

Textbook

Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as…

Review of R, X, and Z (Resistance, Reactance and Impedance)

Textbook

Before we begin to explore the effects of resistors, inductors, and…

Miscellaneous Diode Applications

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Parallel Resistance Calculator

Tools

Calculate the total resistance of resistors in parallel with ease!

Contributors (5)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Averager and Summer Circuits

Textbook

If we take three equal resistors and connect one end of each to a…