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2-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

In partnership with Texas Instruments

2-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

3-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

In partnership with Texas Instruments

3-wire analog outputs with precision DACs

Special Diodes

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

The Unijunction Transistor (UJT)

Textbook

Unijunction transistor: Although a unijunction transistor is not a…

Series Resistor-Inductor Circuits

Textbook

In the previous section, we explored what would happen in simple…

Phase Rotation

Textbook

Three-Phase Alternator Let’s take the three-phase alternator…

Switch Types

Textbook

Though it may seem strange to cover the elementary topic of electrical…

Power Supply Circuits

Textbook

There are three major kinds of power supplies: unregulated (also…

Time Constant Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Generally speaking, how many “time constants” worth of time does…

Wiring Color Codes Infographic

Textbook

Wiring Color Codes Infographic. Released under the Creative Commons…

Differential Amplifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6-volt batteries Two NPN…

Introduction to Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps)

Textbook

What is an Operational Amplifier (Op-amp)? Operational Amplifiers,…

What are “Series” and “Parallel” Circuits?

Textbook

Circuits consisting of just one battery and one load resistance are…

Polar Form and Rectangular Form Notation for Complex Numbers

Textbook

In order to work with complex numbers without drawing vectors, we…

Transistors, Bipolar

Textbook

There are not too many circuit symbols for bipolar transistors. There…

555 Hysteretic Oscillator

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One 9V Battery Battery Clip (Radio Shack catalog #…

Transistors, Insulated-gate Field-effect (IGFET or MOSFET)

Textbook

We have the symbols for depletion mode and enhancement mode MOSFETs -…

Introduction to Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

Textbook

The invention of the bipolar transistor in 1948 ushered in a…

Transistor Ratings and Packages (JFET)

Textbook

Full-wave Center-tap Rectifier

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Low-voltage AC power supply (6-volt output) Two…

The R/2R DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)

Textbook

The R/2R DAC circuit is an alternative to the binary-weighted-input…

More on AC “polarity”

Textbook

Complex numbers are useful for AC circuit analysis because they…

Systems of Numeration

Textbook

Roman Numerals The Romans devised a system that was a substantial…

Battery Construction

Textbook

The word battery simply means a group of similar components. In…

Sensing AC Electric Fields

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Audio detector with headphones  …

Data - Resistance & Superconductor

Textbook

Tables of specific resistance and temperature coefficient of…

Positive Feedback OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Make Your Own Multimeter

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Sensitive meter movement (Radio Shack catalog #…

Shift Registers: Serial-in, Serial-out

Textbook

Serial-in, serial-out shift registers delay data by one clock time for…

Transistors, junction field-effect (JFET)

Textbook

Note that the direction of the arrow at the gate indicates the…

Summer and Subtractor OpAmp Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Asynchronous Counters

Textbook

In the previous section, we saw a circuit using one J-K flip-flop that…

PC Oscilloscope

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS IBM-compatible personal computer with sound card,…

AC Circuit Equations

Textbook

Inductive Reactance     Capacitive Reactance    …

Design Project: Telegraph System

Worksheets - Analog

What voltage will you choose to use for each of the station batteries?

Design Project: DC Motor

Worksheets - Analog

The armature windings of your DC motor will have very low resistance.…

Battery Ratings

Textbook

Because batteries create current flow in a circuit by exchanging…

Contributors (7)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Static Electricity Sensor

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS One N-channel junction field-effect transistor,…

PWM Power Controller

Textbook

PARTS AND MATERIALS Four 6 volt batteries One capacitor, 100 µF…

Series-Parallel Combination AC Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Wires and Connections

Textbook

Older electrical schematics showed connecting wires crossing, while…

Using Multiple Combinational Circuits

Textbook

As an example of using several circuits together, we are going to make…

The 555 IC

Textbook

The 555 integrated circuit is the most popular chip ever manufactured.…

Regulated Power Sources

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Noise Figure and Noise Temperature Calculator

Tools

This calculator computes the noise figure and noise temperature in a system

Contributors (13)

Textbook

Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of…

Systems of Numeration

Textbook

Roman Numerals The Romans devised a system that was a substantial…

Parallel R, L, and C

Textbook

We can take the same components from the series circuit and rearrange…

Design Project: Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) Signal Generator

Worksheets - Analog

What shape of voltage waveform would you expect to measure (using an…

Rectifier Circuits

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Metric Prefix Conversions

Textbook

To express a quantity in a different metric prefix from how it was…

Power Quality Measurement

Textbook

It used to be with large AC power systems that “power…

Design Project: Logic Probe

Worksheets - Analog

What factors determine where potentiometers Rpot1 and Rpot2 must be…

Memory Devices

Worksheets - Analog

Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Network Protocols

Textbook

Aside from the issues of the physical network (signal types and…

Tube Parameters

Textbook

For bipolar junction transistors, the fundamental measure of…

Complex Vector Addition

Textbook

If vectors with uncommon angles are added, their magnitudes (lengths)…

Δ-Y and Y-Δ Conversions

Textbook

In many circuit applications, we encounter components connected…

Electric Fields and Capacitance

Textbook

Introduction Whenever an electric voltage exists between two separated…

Permissive and Interlock Circuits

Textbook

A practical application of switch and relay logic is in control…

Design Project: Simple Component Curve-Tracer Circuit

Worksheets - Analog

What do each of the oscilloscope axes represent, in real-life terms…