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The Common-emitter Amplifier

Textbook

At the beginning of this chapter, it illustrates how transistors could…

Input and Output Coupling

Textbook

To overcome the challenge of creating necessary DC bias voltage for an…

Basic Troubleshooting Strategies

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A chandelier has five light bulbs in it, and one of them is not…

Phase-Locked Loops

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This is a schematic for a simple VCO: The oscillator is of the RC…

Impedance

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

DIY EE Lab - Setting Up a Home Electronics Lab

Textbook

To build the DIY electronics projects described in this textbook, you will need a small work area, a few tools, and some basic electronics supplies. This page describes the setup of a low-cost home electronics laboratory.

Performance-Based Assessments for Semiconductor Circuit Competencies

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Design Project: Signal Generator

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Explain the principle of operation for the particular integrated…

Performance-Based Assessments for Analog Integrated Circuit Competencies

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Clipper and Clamper Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

DC Lab - Potentiometric Voltmeter

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build a null-balancing potentiometric voltmeter and learn how to prevent a voltmeter from changing the voltage it is measuring.

Bipolar Transistor Biasing Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Peak, Average, and RMS Measurements

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How is it possible to assign a fixed value of voltage or current (such…

Linear Computational Circuitry

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Design Project: Arbitrary Waveform Generator

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What, exactly, is an arbitrary waveform generator, and for what…

DC Lab - Voltage Divider

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will build a resistive voltage divider and observe how Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) function in real circuits using a voltmeter and an ammeter.

Oscilloscope Trigger Controls

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A very useful tool for observing rotating objects is a strobe light.…

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

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The circuit shown here is a four-bit analog-to-digital converter…

Rectifying Diodes

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

DC Lab - Sensitive Voltage Detector With Audio Output

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will construct a voltage detector with adjustable sensitivity and audio output, and you will learn a method for detecting small electrical signals without an oscilloscope.

Power Measurement

Textbook

Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than…

Overcurrent Protection

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What hazards might be posed by a circuit with excessive current going…

Solving Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge Circuits Via Mesh Current Method

Textbook

An unbalanced Wheatstone bridge cannot be solved using simple series…

Power Conversion Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Superposition Theorem

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Si Lab - BJT Common-collector Voltage Follower

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a voltage follower amplifier using a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in common-collector configuration and learn about circuit ground and impedance transformations.

Measurements of AC Magnitude

Textbook

So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current…

Bipolar Junction Transistors as Switches

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Solid-state switching circuits usually keep their constituent…

Resistors

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Shown here is the schematic symbol for a resistor: What is the purpose…

What is a Meter?

Textbook

A meter is any device built to accurately detect and display an…

Mixed-Frequency Signals

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What is a harmonic frequency? If an oscillator circuit outputs a…

Bipolar Transistor Biasing Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Multiplexers and Demultiplexers

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to analyze digital…

Ammeter Design

Textbook

Ammeters Measure Electrical Current A meter designed to measure…

Capacitive Reactance

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Basic Ohmmeter Use

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Explain how an ohmmeter is able to measure the resistance of a…

Intro Lab - How to Use an Ammeter to Measure Current

Textbook

In this hands-on introduction to electronics, you will experiment with a multimeter and learn how to measure current using the ammeter function.

Intro Lab - Ohm’s Law

Textbook

Project Overview This project employs all of the skills…

DC Lab - Parallel Batteries

Textbook

In this hands-on electronics experiment, you will connect batteries in parallel to power a light and learn the relationship between the individual battery currents and the total system current.

More on AC “polarity”

Textbook

Complex numbers are useful for AC circuit analysis because they…

Differential Equations

Textbook

As opposed to normal equations where the solution is a number, a…

Op-Amp Practical Considerations

Textbook

Real operational amplifiers have some imperfections compared to an…

Basic Logic Gates

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Identify the type of logic gate shown in this schematic diagram, and…

What is Norton’s Theorem and the Norton Equivalent Circuit?

Textbook

This article explains the step-by-step process for determining the…

The Instrumentation Amplifier

Textbook

What Is an Instrumentation Amplifier? An instrumentation amplifier…

Si Lab - Zener Diode Voltage Regulator

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a simple DC voltage regulator circuit and learn how to use reverse-biased Zener diodes as voltage clamps.

Clipper and Clamper Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

Miscellaneous Diode Applications

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

AC Resistor Circuits (Capacitive)

Textbook

Pure resistive AC circuit: voltage and current are in phase.  …

Converting Between Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits

Textbook

Since Thevenin’s theorem and Norton’s theorems are two…

Important Constants

Textbook

Euler’s Number Euler’s constant is an important value for…

Complex Number Arithmetic

Textbook

Since complex numbers are legitimate mathematical entities, just like…

Data - Resistance & Superconductor

Textbook

Tables of specific resistance and temperature coefficient of…

Transistor Biasing Calculations

Textbook

Although transistor switching circuits operate without bias, it is…

Si Lab - Full-wave Bridge Rectifier

Textbook

In this hands-on semiconductor electronics experiment, build a full-wave bridge rectifier using silicon diodes and learn some of this circuit's advantages and disadvantages.

Binary Count Sequence

Textbook

If we examine a four-bit binary count sequence from 0000 to 1111, a…

Memory with moving parts: “Drives”

Textbook

The earliest forms of digital data storage involving moving parts was…

Don’t Care Cells in the Karnaugh Map

Textbook

Up to this point we have considered logic reduction problems where…

Oscillator Circuits

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Don’t just sit there! Build something!! Learning to mathematically…

DIY EE Lab - Introduction to Electronics Projects

Textbook

To learn about electronics, you must eventually engage in hands-on experimentation. Knowledge gleaned from books alone has limited use in scientific endeavors. Troubleshooting a circuit can be as important as the knowledge gained from a properly functioning experiment.